Taxon: Frangula alnus Mill.

Genus: Frangula
Family: Rhamnaceae
      Tribe: Rhamneae
Nomen number: 105534
Place of publication: Gard. dict. ed. 8: Frangula no. 1. 1768
Name Verified on: 30-Oct-1995 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 09-May-2011
Species priority site is:
Accessions: 5 in National Plant Germplasm System

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental (fide Dict Gard; F USSR; Invasive Pl Spec)
  • Fuels: charcoal (fide Eur Gard F)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide F USSR; Dict Econ Pl; F Iraq; CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (fide Kingsbury; Lampe & McCann; Cooper & Johnson ed2)
  • Weed: (fide Rep NCEPPC; Invasive Pl Spec)

Distributional Range:


  • Africa

    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia
  • Asia-Temperate

    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Dagestan; Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia - Ciscaucasia
    • China: China - Xinjiang
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan
    • Siberia: Russian Federation - Altay; Russian Federation-Eastern Siberia - Eastern Siberia; Russian Federation-Western Siberia - Western Siberia
    • Western Asia: Iran; Iraq; Syria; Turkey
  • Europe

    • East Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation-European part - European part; Ukraine
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czechoslovakia; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Switzerland
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Finland; Ireland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bulgaria; Former Yugoslavia; Greece; Italy; Romania
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Portugal; Spain

  • Naturalized:

  • Northern America

    • : Canada; United States

  • Cultivated:

    . also cult.


  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin). 2009 (Vara kulturvaxt namn)
  • Bisset, N. G., ed. Herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals. A handbook for practice on a scientific basis. 1994 (Herbal Drugs)
  • Blumenthal, M., ed. The complete German Commission E monographs: therapeutic guide to herbal medicines. 1998 (German CommE Monog)
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae. 1959- (F China)
  • Conant, P. et al. 1997. Appendix. Selected plant species interfering with resource management goals in North American natural areas (Pl Invasion) 255-267.
  • Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning. 1998 (Cooper & Johnson ed2)
  • Czerepanov, S. K. Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (the former USSR). 1995 (L USSR)
  • Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. 1965-1988 (F Turk)
  • Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  • Encke, F. et al. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage. 1984 (Zander ed13)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Grellin, J. K. & J. Philpott A reference guide to medicinal plants. 1990 (RefGuide MedPl)
  • Greuter, W. et al., eds. Med-Checklist. 1984- (L Medit)
  • Huxley, A., ed. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 1992 (Dict Gard)
  • Janick, J. & J. Simon, eds. Advances in new crops. 1990 (Adv New Crops)
  • Kartesz, J. T. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 1994 (L US Can ed2)
  • Kellermann, J. 2011. Review of Rhamnaceae data for World Economic Plants, ed. 2 (pers. comm.)
  • Kingsbury, J. M. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. 1964 (Kingsbury)
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. Flora SSSR. 1934-1964 (F USSR)
  • Lampe, K. F. & M. A. McCann AMA handbook of poisonous and injurious plants. 1985 (Lampe & McCann)
  • Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2. 1996 (Ency CNatIn)
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest Flora of Iraq. 1966- (F Iraq)
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. 1964-1980 (F Eur)
  • Uphof, J. C. T. Dictionary of economic plants, ed. 2. 1968 (Dict Econ Pl)
  • Walters, S. M. et al., eds. European garden flora. 1986- (Eur Gard F)
  • Weber, E. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. 2003 (Invasive Pl Spec)
  • Wiersema, J. H. & B. León World economic plants: a standard reference (on-line edition) [medicinal plants only]. (World Econ Pl Med)
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). 1994- (F ChinaEng)
  • Yen, Kun-Ying Illustrated Chinese materia medica: crude drugs. 1980 (Ill Chin Mat Med CrD)

Check other web resources for Frangula alnus Mill. :


  • Fruit: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seeds: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image