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Taxon: Citrus medica L.

 
Genus: Citrus
Family: Rutaceae
Subfamily: Aurantioideae
Tribe: Aurantieae
Subtribe: Citrinae
Nomen number: 10745
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:782. 1753
Link to protologue:
Typification: View in Linnean Typification Project
Name Verified on: 06-Nov-1985 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 148 (89 active, 0 available) in National Plant Germplasm System

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental (fide Pl Res SEAs 2:133. 1991)
  • Food additives:
  • Human food:
  • Medicines: folklore

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Asia-Tropical
    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: India


    Cultivated

    Asia-Temperate
    • CHINA: China

    Europe
    • Europe


    Other (possible origin n.e. India and China)

References:

  1. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  2. Ali, S. I. & S. M. H. Jafri, eds. 1976-. Flora of Libya.
  3. Bayer, R. J. et al. 2009. A molecular phylogeny of the orange subfamily (Rutaceae: Aurantioideae) using nine cpDNA sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 96:668-685. Note: "native to India"
  4. Carbonell-Caballero, J. et al. 2015. A phylogenetic analysis of 34 chloroplast genomes elucidates the relationships between wild and domestic species within the genus Citrus. Molec. Biol. Evol. 32:2015-2035.
  5. Curk, F. et al. 2016. Phylogenetic origin of limes and lemons revealed by cytoplasmic and nuclear markers. Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 117: 565–583.
  6. Davis, P. H., ed. 1965-1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  7. Elevitch, C. R., ed. The traditional tree initiative: species profiles for Pacific Island agroforestry (on-line resource). URL: http://www.agroforestry.net/tti/Citrus-citrus.pdf target='_blank' Note: Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR), Holualoa, Hawai'i\; http://www.traditionaltree.org/
  8. Encke, F. et al. 1984. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage
  9. Encke, F. et al. 1993. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 14. Auflage
  10. Facciola, S. 1990. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants Kampong Publications.
  11. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Citrus+medica&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  12. Froelicher, Y. et al. 2011. New universal mitochondrial PCR markers reveal new information on maternal citrus phylogeny. Tree Genet. Genomes 7:49-61. Note: this study examined the origin of cultivated citrus; it included a sample of Citrus medica; it obtained seven mitotypes, one of which only included C. medica; it supported the interpretation of its role as paternal ancestor of "lemon, 'rough' lemon, 'Mexican' lime, 'Volkamer' lemon, 'Rangpur' line, 'Bergamot', and 'Palestine' lime"
  13. Garcia-Lor, A. et al. 2013. A nuclear phylogenetic analysis: SNPs, indels and SSRs deliver new insights into the relationships in the 'true citrus fruit trees' group (Citrinae, Rutaceae) and the origin of cultivated species. Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 111:1-19.
  14. Gmitter, F. G. et al. 2007. Citrus fruits. Genome mapping and molecular breeding in plants (7 vols.) Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 14:265-279.
  15. Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6
  16. Li, X. et al. 2010. The origin of cultivated Citrus as inferred from Internal Transcribed Spacer and chloroplast DNA sequence and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism fingerprints. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 135:341-350.
  17. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  18. Long, R. W. & O. Lakela. 1971. A flora of tropical Florida.
  19. Luro, F. et al. 2011. Analysis of genetic diversity in Citrus. Pl. Genet. Resources Charact. Util. 9:218-221. Note: this study recognized Citrus medica as one of the ancestral species of citrus cultivars, and confirmed by primary metabolic compounds; it also provided additional support for linking C. medica to the origin of "lemon, lemon hybrids, limes and combayas"
  20. Mabberley, D. J. 1997. A classification for edible Citrus (Rutaceae). Telopea 7:169.
  21. Macbride, J. F. et al., eds. 1936-. Flora of Peru Note: 1936-1971; new ser. 1980-
  22. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2
  23. Matthew, K. M. 1983. The flora of the Tamilnadu Carnatic. Note: "occurs truly wild"
  24. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2 American Herbal Products Association, Silver Spring, Maryland.
  25. Nicolosi, E. et al. 2000. Citrus phylogeny and genetic origin of important species as investigated by molecular markers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 100:1155-1166.
  26. Penjor, T. et al. 2013. Phylogenetic relationships of Citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences. PLoS One 8(4): e62574. Note: this study included two samples of Citrus medica that clustered together, and apart from the mandarins, pummelo, Poncirus and Fortunella clades
  27. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  28. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  29. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants
  30. Reichel, S. 1998. pers. comm. Note: re. German common names
  31. Reitz, R., ed. 1965-. Flora ilustrada catarinense.
  32. Scora, R. W. 1975. On the history and origin of Citrus. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 102:369-375. Note: as one of the "basic" species in the genus
  33. Soukup, J. 1970. Vocabulario de los nombres vulgares de la flora peruana.
  34. Swingle, W. T. & P. C. Reece. 1967. The botany of Citrus and its wild relatives.
  35. Tanaka, T. 1954. Species problem in Citrus: a critical study of wild and cultivated units of Citrus, based upon field studies in their native homes. Revisio Aurantiacearum. 9:113. Note: Maruzen Co. Ltd, Tokyo.
  36. Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest. 1966-. Flora of Iraq.
  37. Turrill, W. B. et al., eds. 1952-. Flora of tropical East Africa.
  38. Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964-1980. Flora europaea.
  39. Verheij, E. W. M. & R. E. Coronel, eds. 1991. Edible fruits and nuts. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 2:131.
  40. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994-. Flora of China (English edition).

Check other web resources for Citrus medica L. :

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?10745. Accessed 15 September 2019.