Taxon: Citrus unshiu Marcow.

Genus: Citrus
Family: Rutaceae
  Subfamily: Aurantioideae
      Tribe: Aurantieae
        Subtribe: Citrinae
Nomen number: 10793
Place of publication: Izv. Sochin. Obl. Sukhum. Sadov. Sel. Opyt. Stantsii 2(2):5. 1921
Comment: [or C. reticulata ‘Unshiu’]
Name Verified on: 12-Jan-1989 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 04-May-2014
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Riverside (RIV)
Accessions: 163 in National Plant Germplasm System

Common names:

  • Satsuma mandarin  (Source: pers. comm.) - English
  • Satsuma orange  (Source: Rev Aurant) - English
  • mandarinier satsuma  (Source: Les Agrumes) - French
  • Satsuma  (Source: pers. comm.) - German
  • unshū-mikan  (Source: pers. comm.) - Japanese Rōmaji
  • gyulnamu  (Source: F Korea) - Transcribed Korean

Economic Importance:

  • Human food: fruit (fide L Edible Pl; Food Feed Crops US; also with seedless cultivars fide J Amer Soc Hort Sci 132:777. 2007)
  • Gene sources: graft stock relative for citrus (fide Pak J Biol Sci 5:509. 2002)
  • Gene sources: progenitor of mandarin cultivars (citrus) (fide HortScience 45:977, 978. 2010)

Distributional Range:


    . probable origin in Kyushu islands, Japan or imported from China to Japan


    . widely cult. in tropics & subtropics


  • Bhusal, R. C. et al. 2002. Selection of rootstocks for flooding and drought tolerance in citrus species Pakistan J. Biol. Sci. 5:509-512.
  • Cantuarias-Avilés, T. et al. 2010. Tree performance and fruit yield and quality of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin grafted on 12 rootstocks Sci. Hort. 123:318-322.
  • Carbonell-Caballero, J. et al. 2015. A phylogenetic analysis of 34 chloroplast genomes elucidates the relationships between wild and domestic species within the genus Citrus Molec. Biol. Evol. 32:2015-2035.
  • Carpenter, J. B. & P. C. Reece Catalog of genera, species, and subordinate taxa in the orange subfamily Aurantioideae (Rutaceae). 1969 (Cat Aurant)
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae. 1959- (F China)
  • Choi, S.-Y. et al. 2007. Correlation between flavonoid content and the NO production inhibitory activity of peel extracts from various Citrus fruits Biol. Pharm. Bull. 30:772-778.
  • Citrus Crop Germplasm Committee 1997. pers. comm. (pers. comm.)
  • Courboulex, M. & H. de Lorrain Les agrumes: oranges, citron, pamplemousses, kumquats. 1997 (Les Agrumes)
  • Cuenca, J. et al. 2010. 'Safor' mandarin: a new Citrus mid-late triploid hybrid (HortScience) 45:977-980.
  • Cuenca, J. et al. 2010. 'Safor' mandarin: a new Citrus mid-late triploid hybrid (HortScience) 45:977-980.
  • Federici, C. T. et al. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Citrus (Rutaceae) and related genera as revealed by RFLP and RAPD analysis Theor. Appl. Genet. 96:812-822.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Forest Experimental Station, Korea Illustrated woody plants of Korea. 1966 (WPl Korea)
  • Froelicher, Y. et al. 2011. New universal mitochondrial PCR markers reveal new information on maternal citrus phylogeny Tree Genet. Genomes 7:49-61.
  • Grosser, J. W. et al. 2000. Somatic hybridization in Citrus: an efefctive tool to facilitate variety improvement In Vitro Cell. Developmental Biol., Plant 36:434-449.
  • Hackett, C. & J. Carolane Edible Horticultural Crops. 1982 (Edible HC)
  • Hanelt, P., ed. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6. 2001 (Mansf Ency)
  • Honsho, C. et al. 2009. Reproductive characteristics for self-incompatibility and seedlesness in 'Nishiushi Kontasu', a bud mutation of Hyuganatsu (Citrus tamurana hort. ex Tanaka) (HortScience) 44:1547-1551.
  • Hu, Z. et al. 2007. Abnormal microspore development leads to pollen abortion in a seedless mutant of 'Ougan' mandarin (Citrus suavissima Hort. ex Tanaka) J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 132:777-782.
  • Huang, Y. et al. 2011. Impact of grafting on cold responsive gene expression in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) (Euphytica) 177:25-32.
  • Jiangsu Inst. Bot., ed. v. 1; Shan. R. H., ed. v. 2 Jiangsu Zhiwuzhi (Flora of Jiangsu). 1977-1982 (F Chiangsu)
  • Kunkel, G. Plants for human consumption. 1984 (L Edible Pl)
  • Lee, Y. N. Flora of Korea. 1997 (F Korea)
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  • Nakano, M. et al. 2013. Characterization of genes associated with polyembryony and in vitro somatic embryogenesis in Citrus Tree Genet. Genomes 9:795-803.
  • Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University Medicinal plants in the Republic of Korea. WHO Regional Publications Western Pacific Series No. 21. 1998 (Med Pl Korea)
  • Nito, N. et al. 2007. Germplasm conservation of indigenous Citrus Acta Hort. 760:105-108.
  • Penjor, T. et al. 2010. Phylogenetic relationships of Citrus and its relatives based on rbcL gene sequences Tree Genet. Genomes 6:931-939.
  • Penjor, T. et al. 2013. Phylogenetic relationships of Citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences (PloS One) 8(4): e62574.
  • Penjor, T. et al. 2013. Phylogenetic relationships of Citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences (PloS One) 8(4): e62574.
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  • Reichel, S. 1998. pers. comm. (pers. comm.)
  • Singh, R. & N. Nath 1969. Practical approach to the classification of Citrus. In: H. D. Chapman (ed.), Proceedings of the First International Citrus Symposium 1:439.
  • St. John, H. List and summary of the flowering plants in the Hawaiian islands. 1973 (L Hawaii)
  • Tanaka, T. 1954. Species problem in Citrus: a critical study of wild and cultivated units of Citrus, based upon field studies in their native homes (Rev Aurant) 9:129.
  • Verheij, E. W. M. & R. E. Coronel, eds. 1991. Edible fruits and nuts (Pl Res SEAs) 2:136.
  • Walker, E. Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu Islands. 1976 (F Okin)
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). 1994- (F ChinaEng)
  • Ye, X.-Q. et al. 2011. Identification of bioactive composition and antioxidant activity in young mandarin fruits Food Chem. 124:1561-1566.


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