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Taxon: Citrus unshiu Marcow.

Genus: Citrus
Family: Rutaceae
Subfamily: Aurantioideae
Tribe: Aurantieae
Subtribe: Citrinae
Nomen number: 10793
Place of publication: Izv. Sochin. Obl. Sukhum. Sadov. Sel. Opyt. Stantsii 2(2):5. 1921
Link to protologue:
Comment: [or C. reticulata 'Unshiu']
Name Verified on: 12-Jan-1989 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 13-Mar-2017
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Riverside (RIV)
Accessions: 164 (47 active, 2 available) in National Plant Germplasm System


Common names:

  • Satsuma mandarin  (Source: pers. comm.) - English
  • Satsuma orange  (Source: Rev Aurant) - English
  • mandarinier satsuma  (Source: Les Agrumes) - French
  • Satsuma  (Source: pers. comm.) - German
  • unshū-mikan  (Source: pers. comm.) - Japanese Rōmaji
  • gyulnamu  (Source: F Korea) - Transcribed Korean

Economic Importance:

  • Human food: fruit; fruit; fruit (also with seedless cultivars); fruit (also with seedless cultivars)

Distributional Range:

    Cultivated (widely cult. in tropics & subtropics)

    Uncertain (probable origin in Kyushu islands, Japan or imported from China to Japan)


  1. Bhusal, R. C. et al. 2002. Selection of rootstocks for flooding and drought tolerance in citrus species Pakistan J. Biol. Sci. 5:509-512.
  2. Cantuarias-Avilés, T. et al. 2010. Tree performance and fruit yield and quality of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin grafted on 12 rootstocks Sci. Hort. 123:318-322.
  3. Carbonell-Caballero, J. et al. 2015. A phylogenetic analysis of 34 chloroplast genomes elucidates the relationships between wild and domestic species within the genus Citrus Molec. Biol. Evol. 32:2015-2035.
  4. Carpenter, J. B. & P. C. Reece Catalog of genera, species, and subordinate taxa in the orange subfamily Aurantioideae (Rutaceae). (Cat Aurant)
  5. Chinese Academy of Sciences Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae. (F China)
  6. Choi, S.-Y. et al. 2007. Correlation between flavonoid content and the NO production inhibitory activity of peel extracts from various Citrus fruits Biol. Pharm. Bull. 30:772-778.
  7. Citrus Crop Germplasm Committee 1997. pers. comm. (pers. comm.)
  8. Courboulex, M. & H. de Lorrain Les agrumes: oranges, citron, pamplemousses, kumquats. (Les Agrumes)
  9. Cuenca, J. et al. 2010. 'Safor' mandarin: a new Citrus mid-late triploid hybrid (HortScience) 45:977-980.
  10. Federici, C. T. et al. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Citrus (Rutaceae) and related genera as revealed by RFLP and RAPD analysis Theor. Appl. Genet. 96:812-822.
  11. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  12. Forest Experimental Station, Korea Illustrated woody plants of Korea. (WPl Korea)
  13. Froelicher, Y. et al. 2011. New universal mitochondrial PCR markers reveal new information on maternal citrus phylogeny Tree Genet. Genomes 7:49-61.
  14. Grosser, J. W. et al. 2000. Somatic hybridization in Citrus: an effective tool to facilitate variety improvement In Vitro Cell. Developmental Biol., Plant 36:434-449.
  15. Hackett, C. & J. Carolane Edible Horticultural Crops (Edible HC)
  16. Hanelt, P., ed. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6 (Mansf Ency)
  17. Honsho, C. et al. 2009. Reproductive characteristics for self-incompatibility and seedlesness in 'Nishiushi Kontasu', a bud mutation of Hyuganatsu (Citrus tamurana hort. ex Tanaka) (HortScience) 44:1547-1551.
  18. Hu, Z. et al. 2007. Abnormal microspore development leads to pollen abortion in a seedless mutant of 'Ougan' mandarin (Citrus suavissima Hort. ex Tanaka) J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 132:777-782.
  19. Huang, Y. et al. 2011. Impact of grafting on cold responsive gene expression in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) (Euphytica) 177:25-32.
  20. Jiangsu Inst. Bot., ed. v. 1; Shan. R. H., ed. v. 2 Jiangsu Zhiwuzhi (Flora of Jiangsu). (F Chiangsu)
  21. Kunkel, G. Plants for human consumption (L Edible Pl)
  22. Lee, Y. N. Flora of Korea. (F Korea)
  23. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2 (Food Feed Crops US)
  24. Nakano, M. et al. 2013. Characterization of genes associated with polyembryony and in vitro somatic embryogenesis in Citrus Tree Genet. Genomes 9:795-803.
  25. Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University Medicinal plants in the Republic of Korea. WHO Regional Publications Western Pacific Series No. 21. (Med Pl Korea)
  26. Nito, N. et al. 2007. Germplasm conservation of indigenous Citrus Acta Hort. 760:105-108.
  27. Penjor, T. et al. 2010. Phylogenetic relationships of Citrus and its relatives based on rbcL gene sequences Tree Genet. Genomes 6:931-939.
  28. Penjor, T. et al. 2013. Phylogenetic relationships of Citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences (PloS One) 8(4): e62574.
  29. Personal Care Products Council International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI)
  30. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  31. Reichel, S. 1998. pers. comm. (pers. comm.)
  32. Singh, R. & N. Nath 1969. Practical approach to the classification of Citrus. In: H. D. Chapman (ed.), Proceedings of the First International Citrus Symposium 1:439.
  33. St. John, H. List and summary of the flowering plants in the Hawaiian islands (L Hawaii)
  34. Tanaka, T. 1954. Species problem in Citrus: a critical study of wild and cultivated units of Citrus, based upon field studies in their native homes (Rev Aurant) 9:129.
  35. Verheij, E. W. M. & R. E. Coronel, eds. 1991. Edible fruits and nuts (Pl Res SEAs) 2:136.
  36. Walker, E. Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu Islands. (F Okin)
  37. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). (F ChinaEng)
  38. Ye, X.-Q. et al. 2011. Identification of bioactive composition and antioxidant activity in young mandarin fruits Food Chem. 124:1561-1566.

Check other web resources for Citrus unshiu Marcow. :

  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?10793. Accessed 17 June 2019.