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Taxon: Cynara cardunculus L.

 
Genus: Cynara
Family: Asteraceae (alt.Compositae)
Subfamily: Carduoideae
Tribe: Cardueae
Subtribe: Carduinae
Nomen number: 12839
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:827. 1753
Link to protologue:
Comment: [cultivated forms include C. cardunculus Cardoon and Scolymus Groups]
Typification: View in Linnean Typification Project
Name Verified on: 05-Jan-2011 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 20 (2 active, 0 available) in National Plant Germplasm System

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental
  • Human food: vegetable (leaves and receptacle of inflorescence)
  • Materials:
  • Medicines:
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant (fide Invasive Pl Spec) potential seed contaminant (fide Invasive Pl Spec)

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Africa
    • MACARONESIA: Spain [Canary Islands]
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Algeria (n.), Libya (n.w.), Morocco (n.), Tunisia

    Europe
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Albania, Croatia, Greece, Italy (incl. Sardinia, Sicily)
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France (s. & Corsica), Portugal, Spain (incl. Baleares)


    Cultivated



    Southern America
    • WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA: Peru


    Naturalized

    Asia-Temperate
    • WESTERN ASIA: Cyprus, Turkey

    Australasia
    • AUSTRALIA: Australia
    • NEW ZEALAND: New Zealand

    Europe
    • Europe

    Northern America
    • SOUTHWESTERN U.S.A.: United States [California]
    • SOUTHERN MEXICO: Mexico [Guanajuato, Michoacán de Ocampo, Querétaro]

    Southern America
    • WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA: Ecuador
    • SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: Argentina, Chile


References:

  1. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  2. Allan, H. H. B. et al. 1961-. Flora of New Zealand.
  3. Davis, P. H., ed. 1965-1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  4. Encke, F. et al. 1984. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage
  5. Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  6. Farnsworth, N. R. & D. D. Soejarto. 1988. Global importance of medicinal plants (unpublished draft manuscript rev. 23)
  7. FNA Editorial Committee. 1993-. Flora of North America.
  8. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Cynara+cardunculus&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  9. Gatto, A. et al. 2013. Population structure of Cynara cardunculus complez and the origin of the conspecific crops artichoke and cardoon. Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 112:855-865.
  10. Gominho, J. et al. 2001. Cynara cardunculus L. - a new fibre crop for pulp and paper production. Industr. Crops Prod. 13:1-10.
  11. Hnatiuk, R. J. 1990. Census of Australian vascular plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series No. 11.
  12. Hu, S.-Y. 1970. Compositae of China. 340.
  13. Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS). Australian plant common name database (on-line resource).
  14. International Seed Testing Association. 1982. A Multilingual Glossary of Common Plant-Names 1. Field crops, grasses and vegetables, ed. 2.
  15. Izquierdo Z., I. et al., eds. 2004. Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias: hongos, plantas y animales terrestres
  16. Jessop, J. P. & H. R. Toelken, eds. 1986. Flora of South Australia, ed. 4.
  17. Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75
  18. Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934-1964. Flora SSSR.
  19. Lanteri, S. & E. Portis. 2008. Globe artichoke and cardoon. Handbook of Plant Breeding. Vegetables I 1:49-74. Note: this review used the names "Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus" to refer to artichoke, and "var. altilis" for cardoon; the latter a name of unresolved nomenclatural status
  20. Lanteri, S. et al. 2012. Morphology and SSR fingerprinting of newly developed Cynara cardunculus genotypes exploitable as ornamentals. Euphytica 184:311-321. Note: Netherlands journal of plant breeding
  21. Lazarides, M. & B. Hince. 1993. CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia
  22. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  23. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2 American Herbal Products Association, Silver Spring, Maryland.
  24. Meikle, R. D. 1977-1985. Flora of Cyprus.
  25. Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. A California flora.
  26. Parsons, W. T. & E. G. Cuthbertson. 1992. Noxious weeds of Australia Inkata Press, Melbourne, Australia.
  27. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  28. Pignone, D. & G. Sonnante. 2004. Wild artichokes of south Italy: did the story begin here?. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 51:577-580.
  29. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  30. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants Note: = Cynara scolymus
  31. Robba, L. et al. 2005. The monophyly and evolution of Cynara L. (Asteraceae) sensu lato: evidence from the Internal Transcribed Spacer region of nrDNA. Pl. Syst. Evol. 253:53-64.
  32. Rottenberg, A. & D. Zohary. 1996. The wild ancestry of the cultivated artichoke. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 43:53-58.
  33. Rottenberg, A. et al. 1996. Isozyme relationships between cultivated artichoke and the wild relatives. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 43:59-62.
  34. Rzedowski, J. & G. Rzedowski, eds. 1991-. Flora del Bajio y de regiones adyacentes.
  35. Sonnante, G. et al. 2007. On the origin of artichoke and cardoon from the Cynara gene pool as revealed by rDNA sequence variation. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 54:483-495.
  36. Sonnante, G. et al. 2007. The domestication of artichoke and cardoon: from Roman times to the genomic age. Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 100:1095-1100.
  37. Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1976. Flora europaea. 4:248.
  38. Vibrans, H., ed. Malezas de México (on-line resource). URL: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/asteraceae/cynara-cardunculus/fichas/pagina1.htm target='_blank'
  39. Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds
  40. Wiklund, A. 1992. The genus Cynara L. (Asteraceae: Cardueae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 109:113.
  41. Willis, J. H. 1970-1972. A handbook to plants in Victoria.
  42. Zuloaga, F. O. & O. Morrone, eds. 1996, 1999. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de la República Argentina. I. Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Angiospermae (Monocotyledonae), II. Dicotyledonae. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60, 74.

Check other web resources for Cynara cardunculus L. :

Images:

  • Fruits: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Fruits: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Fruits: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?12839. Accessed 19 September 2019.