Taxon: Echium vulgare L.

 
Genus: Echium
Family: Boraginaceae
  Subfamily: Boraginoideae
Nomen number: 14879
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:139. 1753
Name Verified on: 31-Mar-2012 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 31-Mar-2012
Species priority site is: Western Regional PI Station (W6)
Accessions: 3 in National Plant Germplasm System

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Bee plants: honey production (fide F Int Apico; Pulmonaria 100.)
  • Environmental: ornamental (fide Dict Gard; Pulmonaria 108.)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide Herbs Commerce ed2; Pulmonaria 100.)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (fide Cooper & Johnson ed2; Lampe & McCann)
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant (fide Econ Pl Aust; Weeds SAfr 2001)

Distributional Range:

    Native:

  • Asia-Temperate

    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Dagestan; Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia - Ciscaucasia
    • China: China - Xinjiang
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
    • Siberia: Russian Federation-Western Siberia - Western Siberia
    • Western Asia: Cyprus; Turkey
  • Europe

    • Eastern Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation-European part - European part; Ukraine
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Ireland; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bulgaria; Greece; Italy; Romania
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Portugal; Spain

  • Naturalized:

  • Africa

    • Southern Africa: Lesotho; South Africa
  • Australasia

    • Australia: Australia - Tasmania, - New South Wales, - South Australia, - Victoria
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • Europe

    • Middle Europe: Germany
    • Northern Europe: Finland; Norway
    • Southeastern Europe: Croatia; Serbia; Slovenia
  • Northern America

    • Eastern Canada: Canada - New Brunswick, - Nova Scotia, - Ontario, - Quebec
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, - Iowa, - Kansas, - Minnesota, - Missouri, - Nebraska, - Oklahoma, - South Dakota, - Wisconsin
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, - Indiana, - Maine, - Massachusetts, - Michigan, - New Hampshire, - New Jersey, - New York, - Ohio, - Pennsylvania, - Rhode Island, - Vermont, - West Virginia
    • Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Colorado, - Idaho, - Montana, - Oregon, - Washington, - Wyoming
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - New Mexico, - Texas
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Arkansas, - Delaware, - Georgia, - Kentucky, - Louisiana, - Maryland, - Mississippi, - North Carolina, - South Carolina, - Tennessee, - Virginia
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - California, - Utah
    • Western Canada: Canada - Alberta, - British Columbia, - Manitoba, - Saskatchewan
  • Southern America

    • Southern South America: Argentina; Chile

  • Cultivated:

    . also cult.

References:

  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin). 2009 (Vara kulturvaxt namn)
  • Allan, H. H. B. et al. Flora of New Zealand. 1961- (F NZeal)
  • Bennett, M. Pulmonarias and the Borage family. 2003 (Pulmonaria) 100.
  • Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning. 1998 (Cooper & Johnson ed2)
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. 1970 (F Tex)
  • Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. 1965-1988 (F Turk)
  • Erhardt, W. et al. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen. 2008 (Zander Ency)
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource). (EuroMed Plantbase)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Foster, S. & J. A. Duke A field guide to medicinal plants: Eastern/Central North America, 2nd ed. 2000 (EastC Med Pl)
  • Germishuizen, G. & N. L. Meyer, eds. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14. 2003 (Pl SAfr ed2)
  • Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, ed. 2. 1991 (Glea Cron ed2)
  • Grellin, J. K. & J. Philpott A reference guide to medicinal plants. 1990 (RefGuide MedPl)
  • Greuter, W. et al., eds. Med-Checklist. 1984- (L Medit)
  • Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. (pers. comm.)
  • Guillarmod, A. J. Flora of Lesotho. 1971 (F Lesotho)
  • Henderson, L. Alien weeds and invasive plants: a complete guide to declared weeds and invaders in South Africa. Plant Protection Research Institute, Handbook 12. 2001 (Weeds SAfr 2001)
  • Hnatiuk, R. J. Census of Australian vascular plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series No. 11. 1990 (L Aust)
  • Holm, L. et al. A geographical atlas of world weeds. 1979 (Atlas WWeed)
  • Huxley, A., ed. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 1992 (Dict Gard)
  • Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): plant threats to Pacific ecosystems (on-line resource). (Pacif I Ecosyst Risk)
  • Instituto de Botánica Darwinion Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares. 2008 (F ConoSur)
  • Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS) Australian plant common name database (on-line resource). (Aust Pl Common Names)
  • Kartesz, J. T. North American plant atlas. The Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2011 (NAmer Pl Atlas)
  • Klemow, K. M. et al. 2002. The biology of Canadian weeds. 116. Echium vulgare L. Canad. J. Pl. Sci. 82:235-248.
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. Flora SSSR. 1934-1964 (F USSR)
  • Lampe, K. F. & M. A. McCann AMA handbook of poisonous and injurious plants. 1985 (Lampe & McCann)
  • Lazarides, M. & B. Hince CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia. 1993 (Econ Pl Aust)
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. 1976 (Hortus 3)
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Moerman, D. Native American ethnobotany, ed. 5. 1998 (Nat Amer Ethnobot)
  • Munro, D. B. Canadian poisonous plants information system (on-line resource). (Can Poison Pl)
  • Ortega-Sada, J. L. Flora de interes apicola y polinizacion de cultivos. 1987 (F Int Apico)
  • Parsons, W. T. & E. G. Cuthbertson Noxious weeds of Australia. 1992 (Noxweed Aust)
  • Pignatti, S. Flora d'Italia. 1982 (F Ital)
  • Retief, E. & A. E. Van Wyk 1998. The genus Echium in southern Africa (Bothalia) 28:174.
  • Steyermark, J. A. Flora of Missouri. 1977 (F Missouri)
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. 1964-1980 (F Eur)
  • Wiersema, J. H. & B. León World economic plants: a standard reference (on-line edition) [medicinal plants only]. (World Econ Pl Med)
  • Willis, J. H. A handbook to plants in Victoria. 1970-1972 (F VictWillis)
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). 1994- (F ChinaEng)

Check other web resources for Echium vulgare L. :

Images:

  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image