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Taxon: Lolium perenne L.

 
Genus: Lolium
Family: Poaceae (alt.Gramineae)
Subfamily: Pooideae
Tribe: Poeae
Subtribe: Loliinae
Nomen number: 22494
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:83. 1753
Link to protologue: https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/358102
Typification: View in Linnean Typification Project
Name Verified on: 08-May-1992 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 1213 (977 active, 668 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Animal food: fodder; forage
  • Environmental: lawn/turf (used in mixtures for lawns fide Grass VarUSA) ornamental; soil improver
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals; mammals
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant; potential seed contaminant

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Africa
    • MACARONESIA: Portugal, [Madeira Islands] Spain [Canary Islands]
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia

    Asia-Temperate
    • ARABIAN PENINSULA: Saudi Arabia
    • WESTERN ASIA: Afghanistan, Cyprus, Egypt, [Sinai] Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey
    • CAUCASUS: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russian Federation, [Dagestan] Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia [Ciscaucasia]

    Asia-Tropical
    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: India (n.w.), Pakistan

    Europe
    • NORTHERN EUROPE: Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Belarus, Moldova, Russian Federation, [Kalmykia, Astrakhan, Saratov, Volgograd] Russian Federation-European part, [European part (s.w.)] Ukraine (incl. Krym)
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece (incl. Crete), Italy (incl. Sardinia, Sicily), Romania, Serbia, Slovenia
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France (incl. Corsica), Portugal, Spain


    Cultivated (also cult.)

    Naturalized

    Africa
    • MACARONESIA: Portugal [Azores]
    • SOUTHERN AFRICA: Lesotho, South Africa
    • WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN: British Indian Ocean Terr, [Diego Garcia] Mauritius, Reunion

    Australasia
    • AUSTRALIA: Australia
    • NEW ZEALAND: New Zealand

    Northern America
    • SUBARCTIC AMERICA: Greenland
    • Canada, Mexico, United States

    Pacific
    • NORTH-CENTRAL PACIFIC: United States [Hawaii]
    • SOUTHWESTERN PACIFIC: New Caledonia

    Southern America
    • CARIBBEAN: West Indies
    • CENTRAL AMERICA: Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama
    • NORTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: French Guiana
    • BRAZIL: Brazil
    • WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA: Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru
    • SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: Argentina, Chile, Uruguay


References:

  1. Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource). URL: http://www.agroatlas.ru/en/content/cultural/Lolium_perenne_K/ target='_blank'
  2. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  3. Alderson, J. & W. C. Sharp. 1995. Grass varieties in the United States, U.S.D.A. Agric. Handb. 170, rev. ed. CRC Press. Note: Revised version of AH 170
  4. Ali, S. I. & S. M. H. Jafri, eds. 1976-. Flora of Libya.
  5. Bor, N. L. 1960. The grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan.
  6. Boulos, L. & M. N. El-Hadidi. 1984. The weeds of Egypt.
  7. Boulos, L. 1995. Flora of Egypt checklist.
  8. Boulos, L. 1999-. Flora of Egypt
  9. CIBA-GEIGY, Basel, Switzerland. Documenta CIBA-GEIGY (Grass weeds 1. 1980, 2. 1981; Monocot weeds 3. 1982; Dicot weeds 1. 1988) Note: four books on weeds worldwide in scope
  10. Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson. 1998. Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning Note: poisonous
  11. Davis, P. H., ed. 1965-1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  12. Erhardt, W. et al. 2008. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen
  13. Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  14. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Lolium+perenne&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  15. Germishuizen, G. & N. L. Meyer, eds. 2003. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14
  16. Hansen, A. & P. Sunding. 1993. Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, ed. 4. Sommerfeltia vol. 17.
  17. Henderson, L. 2001. Alien weeds and invasive plants: a complete guide to declared weeds and invaders in South Africa. Plant Protection Research Institute, Handbook 12
  18. Hnatiuk, R. J. 1990. Census of Australian vascular plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series No. 11.
  19. Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): plant threats to Pacific ecosystems (on-line resource).
  20. International Seed Testing Association. 1982. A Multilingual Glossary of Common Plant-Names 1. Field crops, grasses and vegetables, ed. 2.
  21. Izquierdo Z., I. et al., eds. 2004. Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias: hongos, plantas y animales terrestres
  22. Kellerman, T. S. et al. 1988. Plant poisonings and mycotoxicoses of livestock in Southern Africa Note: poisonous
  23. Kingsbury, J. M. 1964. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. Note: poisonous
  24. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2
  25. Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants. Kulturpflanze 34:106.
  26. Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. 1970-. Flora of [West] Pakistan.
  27. Ohwi, J. 1965. Flora of Japan (Engl. ed.).
  28. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  29. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  30. Rechinger, K. H., ed. 1963-. Flora iranica.
  31. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants
  32. Silva, L. et al. 2005. Listagem da fauna e flora terrestres dos Açores. Lista des plantas vasculares (Pteridophyta e Spermatophyta).
  33. Skvortsov, A. K., ed. 2006. Flora of the Lower Volga region 1:231.
  34. Soreng, R. J. et al. 2003. Catalogue of New World grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48:428.
  35. Terrell, E. E. 1968. A taxonomic revision of the genus Lolium. Techn. Bull. U.S.D.A. 1392:7.
  36. Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest. 1966-. Flora of Iraq.
  37. Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964-1980. Flora europaea.
  38. Tzvelev, N. N. 1976. Zlaki SSSR
  39. University of California Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program. UC SAREP on-line cover crop database (on-line resource).
  40. Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds
  41. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994-. Flora of China (English edition).
  42. Zohary, M. & N. Feinbrun-Dothan. 1966-. Flora palaestina.

Check other web resources for Lolium perenne L. :

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories
  • BONAP North American Plant Atlas of the Biota of North America Program:
  • Flora del Conosur: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Conosur
  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • AVH: Australia's Virtual Herbarium
  • SIBIS: South African National Biodiversity Institute's (SANBI) Integrated Biodiversity System
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • CNWG: Catalogue of New World Grasses Searchable Database
  • Grass Manual on the Web: Manual of Grasses for North America North of Mexico
  • World Grass Species-Descriptions: Morphological species description from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Images:

  • Florets: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?22494. Accessed 17 July 2019.