Taxon: Malus baccata (L.) Borkh.

Genus: Malus
Section: Gymnomeles
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Amygdaloideae
Tribe: Maleae
Subtribe: Malinae
Nomen number: 23219
Place of publication: Theor. prakt. Handb. Forstbot. 2:1280. 1803
Link to protologue:
Name Verified on: 16-Jun-2011 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 16-Jun-2011
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Geneva (GEN)
Accessions: 77 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

  • Siberian crab  (Source: BSBI) - English
  • bärapel  (Source: Kulturvaxtdatabas) - Swedish
  • shan jing zi  (Source: F ChinaEng) - Transcribed Chinese
  • yagwangnamu  (Source: Genet Res Crop Evol) - Transcribed Korean
  • jablonja jagodnaja  (Source: Mansf Ency) - Transliterated Russian
  • jablonja sibirskaja  (Source: Mansf Ency) - Transliterated Russian

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental (for M. pumila & M. asiatica fide F ChinaEng)
  • Gene sources: disease resistance for apple (source of resistance to apple scab fide Euphytica 118:282. 2001)
  • Gene sources: graft stock relative for apple (fide Breed Pl Tree Crops 39. 2009)
  • Gene sources: potential for cold tolerance in apple (F1 hybrids derived of crosses with Malus domestica fide Euphytica 14:179. 1965)
  • Gene sources: secondary genetic relative of apple (based on crosses with Malus domestica fide Euphytica 14:179. 1965)

Distributional Range:


  • Asia-Temperate

    • China: China Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Monggol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Xinjiang, Xizang
    • Eastern Asia: Korea
    • Mongolia: Mongolia
    • Russian Far East: Russian Federation Khabarovsk, Primorye, Amur
    • Siberia: Russian Federation-Eastern Siberia Eastern Siberia
  • Asia-Tropical

    • Indian Subcontinent: Bhutan ; India ; Nepal

  • Cultivated


  • Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource). (AgroAtlas)
  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource on 2012 (Kulturvaxtdatabas)
  • Botanical Society of the British Isles BSBI taxon database (on-line resource). (BSBI)
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae. 1959- (F China)
  • Cornille, A. et al. 2012. New insight into the history of domesticated apple: Secondary contribution of the European wild apple to the genome of cultivated varieties PLoS Genet. 8(5): e1002703. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002703
  • Czerepanov, S. K. Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (the former USSR). 1995 (L USSR)
  • Encke, F. et al. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 14. Auflage. 1993 (Zander ed14)
  • Hancock, J. F. et al. 2008. Chapter 1. Apples (Temp Fruit Cr Breed) 1-37.
  • Hanelt, P., ed. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6. 2001 (Mansf Ency)
  • Hara, H. et al. An enumeration of the flowering plants of Nepal. 1978-1982 (L Nepal)
  • Hoang, H.-D. et al. 1997. Additional notes to the checklist of Korean cultivated plants (5). Consolidated summary and indexes Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 44:365.
  • Hokanson, S. C. et al. 2001. Microsatellite (SSR) variation in a collection of Malus (apple) species and hybrids (Euphytica) 118:281-294.
  • Huxley, A., ed. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 1992 (Dict Gard)
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. Flora SSSR. 1934-1964 (F USSR)
  • Krüssmann, G. Manual of cultivated broad-leaved trees and shrubs (English translation of Handbuch der Laubgehölze. 1976). 1984 (Krussmann)
  • Kunkel, G. Plants for human consumption. 1984 (L Edible Pl)
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. 1976 (Hortus 3)
  • Likhonos, F. D. 1974. A survey of the species in the genus Malus Mill. Trudy Prikl. Bot. 52(3):27.
  • Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants (Kulturpflanze) 34:107.
  • Oraguzie, N. C. et al. 2005. DNA fingerprinting of apple (Malus spp.) rootstocks using simple sequence repeats Pl. Breed. (New York) 124:197-202.
  • Pemberton, R. W. & N. S. Lee 1996. Wild food plants in South Korea; market presence, new crops, and exports to the United States Econ. Bot. 50:60.
  • Pereira-Lorenzo, S. et al. 2009. Breeding apple (Malus × domestica) (Breed Pl Tree Crops) 33-81.
  • Personal Care Products Council International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI)
  • Ponomarenko, V. V. 1978. On the systematics of Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. Trudy Prikl. Bot. 62(3):24-35.
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  • Velasco, R. et al. 2010. The genome of the domesticated apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) Nat. Genet. 42:833-841.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). 1994- (F ChinaEng)
  • Zhou, Z.-Q. 1999. The apple genetic resources in China: the wild species and their distributions, informative characterists and utilisation Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 46:603.
  • Zhukovsky, P. M. 1965. Main gene centres of cultivated plants and their wild relatives within the territory of thw U.S.S.R. (Euphytica) 14:177-188.

Check other web resources for Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. :


  • Fruit: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image