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Taxon: Malus toringo (Siebold) de Vriese

Genus: Malus
Section: Sorbomalus
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Amygdaloideae
Tribe: Maleae
Subtribe: Malinae
Nomen number: 23282
Place of publication: Tuinb.-fl. 3:368. 1856
Link to protologue:
Comment: de Vriese's citation of "Malus (Sorbus) toringo Sieb." is an indirect reference to the basionym Sorbus toringo Siebold (Shenzhen ICN Art. 41.3) and not an ascription of this name to Siebold (Shenzhen ICN Art. 46.3, see Ex. 18)
Name Verified on: 30-Jun-2011 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 200 (134 active, 105 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

  • toringa crab apple  (Source: Dict Rehm) - English
  • toringo crab  (Source: Zander ed17) - English
  • Siebolds Apfel  (Source: Dict Rehm) - German
  • Toringo-Apfel  (Source: Zander ed17) - German
  • ko-nashi  (Source: F Japan) - Japanese Rōmaji
  • ko-ringo  (Source: F Japan) - Japanese Rōmaji
  • mitsuba-kaidō  (Source: F Japan) - Japanese Rōmaji
  • zumi  (Source: F JapanOhwi) - Japanese Rōmaji
  • rönnbärsapel  (Source: Kulturvaxtdatabas) - Swedish
  • san ye hai tang  (Source: F ChinaEng) - Transcribed Chinese
  • ageubaenamu  (Source: Kulturpflanze) - Transcribed Korean

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental (as Malus sieboldii)

Distributional Range:


    • CHINA: China [Zhejiang Sheng, Fujian Sheng, Henan Sheng, Hunan Sheng, Hubei Sheng, Gansu Sheng, Jiangxi Sheng, Guangdong Sheng, Guizhou Sheng, Liaoning Sheng, Shandong Sheng, Shaanxi Sheng, Sichuan Sheng, Yunnan Sheng, Guangxi Zhuangzu Zizhiqu]
    • EASTERN ASIA: Japan, [Hokkaidô, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku] Korea

    Cultivated (also cult.)


  1. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  2. Bisognin, C. et al. 2009. Use of SSR markers to assess sexual vs. apomitic origin and ploidy level of breeding progeny derived from crosses of apple proliferation-resistant Malus sieboldii and its hybrids with Malus × domestica cultivars. Pl. Breed. (New York) 128:507-513.
  3. Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959-. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae. Note: lists as Malus toringo Siebold (= M. sieboldii (Regel) Rehder)
  4. Czerepanov, S. K. 1995. Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (the former USSR) Cambridge University Press. Note: lists as Malus toringo Siebold
  5. Erhardt, W. et al. 2002. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 17. Auflage
  6. Erhardt, W. et al. 2008. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen Note: lists as Malus toringo (Siebold) K. Koch
  7. Forte, A. V. et al. 2002. Phylogeny of the Malus (apple tree) species, inferred from the morphological traits and molecular DNA analysis. Russian J. Genet. 38:1357-1369. Note: as Malus sieboldii
  8. Iwatsuki, K. et al. 1993-. Flora of Japan.
  9. Likhonos, F. D. 1974. A survey of the species in the genus Malus Mill.. Trudy Prikl. Bot. 52(3):32.
  10. Ohwi, J. 1965. Flora of Japan (Engl. ed.). Note: = Malus sieboldii
  11. Pereira-Lorenzo, S. et al. 2009. Breeding apple (Malus × domestica Borkh). Breeding plantation tree crops: temperate species 33-81. Note: = Malus sieboldii (Regel) Rehd.
  12. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  13. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants Note: = Malus sieboldii
  14. Robinson, J. P. et al. 2001. Taxonomy of the genus Malus Mill. (Rosaceae) with emphasis on the cultivated apple, Malus domestica Borkh.. Pl. Syst. Evol. 226:35-58.
  15. Seemüller, E. et al. 2008. Apple proliferation resistance of Malus sieboldii-based rootstocks in comparison to rootstocks derived from other Malus species. Eur. J. Pl. Pathol. 121:109-119.
  16. Walters, S. M. et al., eds. 1986-2000. European garden flora. Note: lists as Malus toringo Nakai (= M. sieboldii (Regel) Rehder)
  17. Way, R. D. et al. 1991. Apple (Malus). Acta Hort. 290:3-46. Note: lists as Malus sieboldii
  18. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994-. Flora of China (English edition). Note: lists as Malus toringo (Siebold) Carrière (= M. sieboldii (Regel) Rehder)
  19. Zhou, Z.-Q. 1999. The apple genetic resources in China: the wild species and their distributions, informative characteristics and utilisation. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 46:601.

Check other web resources for Malus toringo (Siebold) de Vriese :

  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?23282. Accessed 20 January 2020.