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Taxon: Malus toringo (Siebold) de Vriese

Genus: Malus
Section: Sorbomalus
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Amygdaloideae
Tribe: Maleae
Subtribe: Malinae
Nomen number: 23282
Place of publication: Tuinb.-fl. 3:368. 1856
Link to protologue:
Comment: de Vriese's citation of "Malus (Sorbus) toringo Sieb." is an indirect reference to the basionym Sorbus toringo Siebold (Shenzhen ICN Art. 41.3) and not an ascription of this name to Siebold (Shenzhen ICN Art. 46.3, see Ex. 18)
Name Verified on: 30-Jun-2011 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 30-Jan-2019
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Geneva (GEN)
Accessions: 200 (134 active, 105 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)


Common names:

  • toringa crab apple  (Source: Dict Rehm) - English
  • toringo crab  (Source: Zander ed17) - English
  • Siebolds Apfel  (Source: Dict Rehm) - German
  • Toringo-Apfel  (Source: Zander ed17) - German
  • ko-nashi  (Source: F Japan) - Japanese Rōmaji
  • ko-ringo  (Source: F Japan) - Japanese Rōmaji
  • mitsuba-kaidō  (Source: F Japan) - Japanese Rōmaji
  • zumi  (Source: F JapanOhwi) - Japanese Rōmaji
  • rönnbärsapel  (Source: Kulturvaxtdatabas) - Swedish
  • san ye hai tang  (Source: F ChinaEng) - Transcribed Chinese
  • ageubaenamu  (Source: Kulturpflanze) - Transcribed Korean

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental (as Malus sieboldii); ornamental (as Malus sieboldii)

Distributional Range:


    • CHINA: China [Fujian Sheng, Gansu Sheng, Guangxi Zhuangzu Zizhiqu, Guizhou Sheng, Hubei Sheng, Hunan Sheng, Jiangxi Sheng, Sichuan Sheng, Yunnan Sheng, Zhejiang Sheng, Guangdong Sheng, Henan Sheng, Liaoning Sheng, Shaanxi Sheng, Shandong Sheng]
    • EASTERN ASIA: Japan, [Hokkaidô, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku] Korea

    Cultivated (also cult.)


  1. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) (Kulturvaxtdatabas)
  2. Bisognin, C. et al. 2009. Use of SSR markers to assess sexual vs. apomitic origin and ploidy level of breeding progeny derived from crosses of apple proliferation-resistant Malus sieboldii and its hybrids with Malus × domestica cultivars Pl. Breed. (New York) 128:507-513.
  3. Chinese Academy of Sciences Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae. (F China)
  4. Czerepanov, S. K. Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (the former USSR) (L USSR)
  5. Erhardt, W. et al. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 17. Auflage (Zander ed17)
  6. Erhardt, W. et al. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen (Zander Ency)
  7. Forte, A. V. et al. 2002. Phylogeny of the Malus (apple tree) species, inferred from the morphological traits and molecular DNA analysis Russian J. Genet. 38:1357-1369.
  8. Iwatsuki, K. et al. Flora of Japan. (F Japan)
  9. Likhonos, F. D. 1974. A survey of the species in the genus Malus Mill. Trudy Prikl. Bot. 52(3):32.
  10. Ohwi, J. Flora of Japan (Engl. ed.). (F JapanOhwi)
  11. Pereira-Lorenzo, S. et al. 2009. Breeding apple (Malus × domestica Borkh) (Breed Pl Tree Crops) 33-81.
  12. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  13. Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants (Dict Rehm)
  14. Robinson, J. P. et al. 2001. Taxonomy of the genus Malus Mill. (Rosaceae) with emphasis on the cultivated apple, Malus domestica Borkh. Pl. Syst. Evol. 226:35-58.
  15. Seemüller, E. et al. 2008. Apple proliferation resistance of Malus sieboldii-based rootstocks in comparison to rootstocks derived from other Malus species Eur. J. Pl. Pathol. 121:109-119.
  16. Walters, S. M. et al., eds. European garden flora. (Eur Gard F)
  17. Way, R. D. et al. 1991. Apple (Malus) Acta Hort. 290:3-46.
  18. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). (F ChinaEng)
  19. Zhou, Z.-Q. 1999. The apple genetic resources in China: the wild species and their distributions, informative characteristics and utilisation Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 46:601.

Check other web resources for Malus toringo (Siebold) de Vriese :

  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?23282. Accessed 19 June 2019.