Taxon: Oenothera biennis L.

 
Genus: Oenothera
    Section: Oenothera
      Subsection: Oenothera
Family: Onagraceae
  Subfamily: Onagroideae
      Tribe: Onagreae
Nomen number: 25521
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:346. 1753
Name Verified on: 03-Mar-1998 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 13-Feb-2009
Species priority site is: Ornamental Plant Germplasm Center (OPGC)
Accessions: 198 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental (fide Dict Gard; Hortus 3)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide Ency CNatIn; CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)

Distributional Range:

    Other:

    . exact native range obscure

    Native:

  • Northern America

    • Eastern Canada: Canada - New Brunswick, - Newfoundland, - Nova Scotia, - Ontario, - Prince Edward Island, - Quebec
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, - Iowa, - Kansas, - Minnesota, - Missouri, - Nebraska, - North Dakota, - Oklahoma, - South Dakota, - Wisconsin
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, - Indiana, - Maine, - Massachusetts, - Michigan, - New Hampshire, - New Jersey, - New York, - Ohio, - Pennsylvania, - Rhode Island, - Vermont, - West Virginia
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - Texas
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, - Arkansas, - Delaware, - Florida, - Georgia, - Kentucky, - Louisiana, - Maryland, - Mississippi, - North Carolina, - South Carolina, - Tennessee, - Virginia
    • Western Canada: Canada - Alberta, - Manitoba, - Saskatchewan

  • Naturalized:

    . widely natzd. in temperate & subtropic regions

    Cultivated:

    . also cult.

References:

  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin). 2009 (Vara kulturvaxt namn)
  • Britton, N. L. et al., eds. ser. 1; C. T. Rogerson, ed. ser. 2 North American flora ser. 1, 1905-1957; ser. 2, 1954-1972 (N Amer fl)
  • Chester, E. W. et al. Atlas of Tennessee vascular plants. 1993-1997 (Atlas Tenn)
  • Dietrich, W. et al. 1997. Systematics of Oenothera section Oenothera subsection Oenothera (Onagraceae) Syst. Bot. Monogr. 50:93.
  • Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  • Encke, F. et al. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage. 1984 (Zander ed13)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Foster, S. & C. Hobbs A field guide to Western medicinal plants and herbs. 2002 (W Med Pl Herbs)
  • Foster, S. & J. A. Duke A field guide to medicinal plants: Eastern/Central North America, 2nd ed. 2000 (EastC Med Pl)
  • Foster, S. & V. E. Tyler Tyler's honest herbal: a sensible guide to the use of herbs and related remedies, ed. 4. 1999 (Tyler Herbal)
  • Grellin, J. K. & J. Philpott A reference guide to medicinal plants. 1990 (RefGuide MedPl)
  • Hanelt, P., ed. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6. 2001 (Mansf Ency)
  • Huxley, A., ed. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 1992 (Dict Gard)
  • Iwatsuki, K. et al. Flora of Japan. 1993- (F Japan)
  • Janick, J. & J. Simon, eds. Advances in new crops. 1990 (Adv New Crops)
  • Kartesz, J. T. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 1994 (L US Can ed2)
  • Kindscher, K. Medicinal wild plants of the prairie: an ethnobotanical guide. 1992 (Med Wild Pl Prairie)
  • Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2. 1996 (Ency CNatIn)
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. 1976 (Hortus 3)
  • Mansfeld, R. Die Kulturpflanze, Beiheft 2. 1959 (Mansfeld)
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Mills, S. & K. Bone Principles and practice of phytotherapy: modern herbal medicine. 1999 (Prin Phytotherapy)
  • Moerman, D. Native American ethnobotany, ed. 5. 1998 (Nat Amer Ethnobot)
  • Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants (Kulturpflanze) 34:112.
  • Peirce, A. The American Pharmaceutical Association practical guide to natural medicines. 1999 (Pract Guide Nat Med)
  • Raven, P. et al. 1979. An outline of the systematics of Oenothera subsect. Euoenothera (Onagraceae) Syst. Bot. 4:244.
  • Scoggan, H. J. The flora of Canada, 4 vol. 1978-1979 (F Canada)
  • Skvortsov, A. K. 1994. Genus Oenothera (Onagraceae) in the former Soviet Union: taxonomy and distribution Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir., Otd. Biol. 99:98.
  • Van Wyk, B.-E. & M. Wink Medicinal plants of the world. 2004 (Med Pl World)
  • Wiersema, J. H. & B. León World economic plants: a standard reference (on-line edition) [medicinal plants only]. (World Econ Pl Med)
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). 1994- (F ChinaEng)

Synonyms:

Check other web resources for Oenothera biennis L. :

Images:

  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image