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Taxon: Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.

 
Genus: Opuntia
Family: Cactaceae
Subfamily: Opuntioideae
Tribe: Opuntieae
Nomen number: 25840
Place of publication: Gard. dict. ed. 8: Opuntia no. 2. 1768
Link to protologue: https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/51493855
Comment: an implicit reference to a Linnaean basionym may be assumed fide Shenzhen ICN Art 41.3, Ex. 5
Name Verified on: 28-Aug-2002 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 196 (123 active, 99 available) in National Plant Germplasm System

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Animal food: fodder (fide Succ Pl Res 6:130; Cact Fam)
  • CITES Appendix II:
  • Environmental:
  • Fuels:
  • Human food: fruit (fide Agrociencia 39:395-396. 2005) fruit (fide Cact Fam;) vegetable (as vegetable fide Fla Entomol 84:494. 2001)
  • Invertebrate food: dye-containing insects (cochineals used as a source of carmine dye fide ; Cact Fam)
  • Medicines:
  • Weed:

Distributional Range:

    Cultivated (widely cult.)

    Naturalized

    Africa
    • MACARONESIA: Cape Verde, Portugal, [Madeira Islands] Spain [Canary Islands]
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Libya, Morocco, Tunisia
    • NORTHEAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Eritrea, Ethiopia
    • EAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Kenya
    • SOUTH TROPICAL AFRICA: Angola
    • SOUTHERN AFRICA: South Africa

    Asia-Temperate
    • ARABIAN PENINSULA: Saudi Arabia, Yemen
    • WESTERN ASIA: Cyprus, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey
    • CHINA: China (s.)

    Australasia
    • AUSTRALIA: Australia

    Europe
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Greece, Italy
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France (incl. Corsica), Spain (incl. Baleares)

    Northern America
    • SOUTHWESTERN U.S.A.: United States [Arizona, California]
    • Mexico

    Pacific
    • NORTH-CENTRAL PACIFIC: United States [Hawaii]

    Southern America
    • CARIBBEAN: Cuba, Guadeloupe, Hispaniola, Netherlands Antilles, Trinidad and Tobago, [Trinidad] United States [Puerto Rico]
    • CENTRAL AMERICA: Nicaragua
    • BRAZIL: Brazil
    • WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA: Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru
    • SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: Argentina, Paraguay


    Other (probable origin Mexico)

References:

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  2. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  3. Anderson, E. F. 2001. The cactus family 499.
  4. Angely, J. A. 1970-. Flora analítica e fitográfica do Estado de São Paulo.
  5. Benson, L. 1982. The cacti of the United States and Canada 932.
  6. Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi. 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45
  7. Bravo-Hollis, H. & H. Sánchez-Mejorada. 1978. Las Cactáceas de México, vol. 1 - 1978, vols. 2,3 - 1991 320.
  8. Brutsch, M. O. & H. G. Zimmermann. 1993. The prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica [Cactaceae]) in South Africa: Utilization of the naturalized weed, and of the cultivated plants. Econ. Bot. 47:154-162.
  9. CITES. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendices I, II and III (on-line resource).
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  13. Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs
  14. Erhardt, W. et al. 2008. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen
  15. Felker, P. et al. 2002. A comparison of the fruit parameters of 12 Opuntia clones grown in Argentina and the United States. J. Arid Environm. 52:361-370.
  16. Felker, P. et al. 2005. Comparison of Opuntia ficus indica varieties of Mexican and Argentine origin for fruit yield and quality in Argentina. J. Arid Environm. 60:405-422.
  17. Felker, P. et al. 2010. Fruit characters among apomictics and sexual progeny of a cross of the Texas native Opuntia lindheimerii (1250) with a commercial fruit type Opuntia ficus-indica (1281). J. Profess. Assoc. Cactus Developm. 12:48-66.
  18. Figueiredo, E. & G. F. Smith. 2008. Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279.
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  20. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Opuntia+ficus-indica&quantity=1 target='_blank'
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  24. Greuter, W. et al., eds. 2000. International code of botanical nomenclature (Saint Louis Code) Art. 32.4, Ex. 7.
  25. Griffith, M. P. 2004. The origins of an important cactus crop, Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae): new molecular evidence. Amer. J. Bot. 91:1915-1921.
  26. Hackett, C. & J. Carolane. 1982. Edible Horticultural Crops Academic Press.
  27. Hansen, A. & P. Sunding. 1993. Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, ed. 4. Sommerfeltia vol. 17.
  28. Hedberg, I. & S. Edwards. 1989-. Flora of Ethiopia Note: Eritrea added in 2000
  29. Henderson, L. 2001. Alien weeds and invasive plants: a complete guide to declared weeds and invaders in South Africa. Plant Protection Research Institute, Handbook 12
  30. Henderson, M. et al. 1987. Declared weeds and alien invader plants in South Africa. Botanical Research Institute, bulletin 413
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  32. Instituto de Botánica Darwinion. 2008. Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares.
  33. IPGRI. New World Fruits Database (on-line resource).
  34. Irish, M. 2001. The ornamental prickly pear industry in the southwestern United States. Florida Entomol. 84:484.
  35. Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75
  36. Kiesling, R. 1999. Origen, domesticación y distribución de Opuntia ficus-indica. J. Profess. Assoc. Cactus Developm. 3:50-59.
  37. Kunkel, G. 1984. Plants for human consumption
  38. Labra, M. et al. 2003. Genetic relationships in Opuntia Mill. genus (Cactaceae) detected by molecular marker. Pl. Sci. (Elsevier) 165:1129-1136.
  39. Le Floc'h, E. & L. Boulos. 2008. Flore de Tunisie: catalogue synonymique commenté
  40. León, B. 1995. pers. comm. Note: re. Spanish common names
  41. Leuenberger, B. E. 1993. Interpretation and typification of Cactus opuntia L., Opuntia vulgaris Mill., and O. humifusa (Rafin.) Rafin. (Cactaceae). Taxon 42:426.
  42. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  43. Magness, J. R. et al. 1971. Food and feed crops of the United States. IR Bull. 1
  44. Majure, L. C. et al. 2012. Phylogeny of Opuntia s.s. (Cactaceae): Clade delineation, geographic origins, and reticulate evolution. Amer. J. Bot. 99:847-864. Note: a Mexican octoploid apparentlty derived from human-mediated hybridization, and also early dispersed to South America
  45. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2
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  54. Reyes-Agüero, J. A. et al. 2005. Systematic notes and a detailed description of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae). Agrociencia (Montecillo) 39:395-408.
  55. Samah, S. et al. 2016. Genetic diversity, genotype discrimination, and population structure of Mexican Opuntia sp., determined by SSR markers. Pl. Molec. Biol. Reporter 34:146-159. Note: ISSN: 0735-9640 (Print) 1572-9818 (Online)
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Check other web resources for Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. :

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • Flora of North America: Collaborative Floristic Effort of North American Botanists
  • PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories
  • BONAP North American Plant Atlas of the Biota of North America Program:
  • Flora del Conosur: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Conosur
  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • AVH: Australia's Virtual Herbarium
  • ABRS: Australian Biological Resources Study Flora of Australia online
  • SIBIS: South African National Biodiversity Institute's (SANBI) Integrated Biodiversity System
  • New World Fruits Database: Online database from Bioversity International
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Images:


Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?25840. Accessed 26 August 2019.