Taxon: Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.

 
Genus: Opuntia
Family: Cactaceae
Subfamily: Opuntioideae
Tribe: Opuntieae
Nomen number: 25840
Place of publication: Gard. dict. ed. 8: Opuntia no. 2. 1768
Link to protologue:
Comment: an implicit reference to a Linnaean basionym may be assumed fide Melbourne ICN Art 41, Ex. 5
Typification:
Name Verified on: 28-Aug-2002 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 21-Jan-2014
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Miami (MIA)
Accessions: 123 in National Plant Germplasm System

Synonyms:

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • CITES Appendix II: ()
  • Environmental: ornamental (fide Fla Entomol 84:484. 2001; Cact Fam; Invasive Pl Spec)
  • Human food: beverage base ()
  • Human food: fruit (fide Agrociencia 39:395-396. 2005)
  • Human food: fruit (fide Cact Fam;)
  • Human food: vegetable (as vegetable fide Fla Entomol 84:494. 2001)
  • Animal food: fodder (fide Succ Pl Res 6:130; Cact Fam)
  • Fuels: fuelwood ()
  • Invertebrate food: dye-containing insects (cochineals used as a source of carmine dye fide Econ Bot 47:157. 1993; Cact Fam)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2; Cact Fam)
  • Weed: (fide Econ Bot 47:155; Cactus USCan; Cact Fam; Invasive Pl Spec; Weeds SAfr 2001)

Distributional Range:

    Cultivated (widely cult.)

    Naturalized

    Africa
    • MACARONESIA: Cape Verde, Portugal, [Madeira Islands] Spain [Canary Islands]
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Libya, Morocco, Tunisia
    • NORTHEAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Eritrea, Ethiopia
    • EAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Kenya
    • SOUTH TROPICAL AFRICA: Angola
    • SOUTHERN AFRICA: South Africa

    Asia-Temperate
    • ARABIAN PENINSULA: Saudi Arabia, Yemen
    • WESTERN ASIA: Cyprus, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey
    • CHINA: China (s.)

    Australasia
    • AUSTRALIA: Australia

    Europe
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Greece, Italy
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France (incl. Corsica), Spain (incl. Baleares)

    Northern America
    • SOUTHWESTERN U.S.A.: United States [Arizona, California]
    • Mexico

    Pacific
    • NORTH-CENTRAL PACIFIC: United States [Hawaii]

    Southern America
    • CARIBBEAN: Cuba, Guadeloupe, Hispaniola, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago [Trinidad]
    • CENTRAL AMERICA: Nicaragua
    • BRAZIL: Brazil
    • WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA: Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru
    • SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: Argentina, Paraguay


    Other (probable origin Mexico)

References:

  1. Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & M. T. Strong Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 98. 2012 (L West Indies)
  2. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource on www.skud.info). 2012 (Kulturvaxtdatabas)
  3. Anderson, E. F. The cactus family. 2001 (Cact Fam) 499.
  4. Angely, J. A. Flora analítica e fitográfica do Estado de São Paulo. (F Anal Sao Paulo)
  5. Benson, L. 1982. The cacti of the United States and Canada. 1982 (Cact US Can) 932.
  6. Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45. 1993 (L Peru)
  7. Bravo-Hollis, H. & H. Sánchez-Mejorada 1978. Las Cactáceas de México, vol. 1 - 1978, vols. 2,3 - 1991 (Cact Mex) 320.
  8. Brutsch, M. O. & H. G. Zimmermann 1993. The prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica [Cactaceae]) in South Africa: Utilization of the naturalized weed, and of the cultivated plants Econ. Bot. 47:154-162.
  9. CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendices I, II and III (on-line resource). (CITES Appendices)
  10. Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. 1970 (F Tex)
  11. Cufodontis, G. Enumeratio plantarum aethiopiae: Spermatophyta. (F EthiopCuf)
  12. Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. (F Turk)
  13. Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  14. Erhardt, W. et al. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen. 2008 (Zander Ency)
  15. Felker, P. et al. 2002. A comparison of the fruit parameters of 12 Opuntia clones grown in Argentina and the United States J. Arid Environm. 52:361-370.
  16. Felker, P. et al. 2005. Comparison of Opuntia ficus indica varieties of Mexican and Argentine origin for fruit yield and quality in Argentina J. Arid Environm. 60:405-422.
  17. Figueiredo, E. & G. F. Smith Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. 2008 (Pl Angol)
  18. FNA Editorial Committee Flora of North America. (F NAmer)
  19. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  20. Forzza, R. C. et al., coord. Lista de espécies da flora do Brasil (on-line resource). (L Brasil Online)
  21. George, A. S., ed. Flora of Australia. (F Aust)
  22. Germishuizen, G. & N. L. Meyer, eds. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14. 2003 (Pl SAfr ed2)
  23. Greuter, W. et al., eds. International code of botanical nomenclature (Saint Louis Code). 2000 (ICBN St Louis) Art. 32.4, Ex. 7.
  24. Griffith, M. P. 2004. The origins of an important cactus crop, Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae): new molecular evidence Amer. J. Bot. 91:1915-1921.
  25. Hackett, C. & J. Carolane Edible Horticultural Crops. 1982 (Edible HC)
  26. Hansen, A. & P. Sunding Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, ed. 4. Sommerfeltia vol. 17. (L Macar ed4)
  27. Hedberg, I. & S. Edwards Flora of Ethiopia. 1989- (and Eritrea. 2000) (F Ethiop)
  28. Henderson, L. Alien weeds and invasive plants: a complete guide to declared weeds and invaders in South Africa. Plant Protection Research Institute, Handbook 12. 2001 (Weeds SAfr 2001)
  29. Henderson, M. et al. Declared weeds and alien invader plants in South Africa. Botanical Research Institute, bulletin 413. 1987 (Weeds SAfr)
  30. Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): plant threats to Pacific ecosystems (on-line resource). (Pacif I Ecosyst Risk)
  31. Instituto de Botánica Darwinion Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares. (F ConoSur)
  32. IPGRI New World Fruits Database (on-line resource). (New World Fruits)
  33. Irish, M. 2001. The ornamental prickly pear industry in the southwestern United States Florida Entomol. 84:484.
  34. Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75. 1999 (L Ecuador)
  35. Kiesling, R. 1999. Origen, domesticación y distribución de Opuntia ficus-indica J. Profess. Assoc. Cactus Developm. 3:50-59.
  36. Kunkel, G. Plants for human consumption. 1984 (L Edible Pl)
  37. Labra, M. et al. 2003. Genetic relationships in Opuntia Mill. genus (Cactaceae) detected by molecular marker Pl. Sci. (Elsevier) 165:1129-1136.
  38. Le Floc'h, E. & L. Boulos Flore de Tunisie: catalogue synonymique commenté. 2008 (L Tunis)
  39. León, B. 1995. pers. comm. (pers. comm.)
  40. Leuenberger, B. E. 1993. Interpretation and typification of Cactus opuntia L., Opuntia vulgaris Mill., and O. humifusa (Rafin.) Rafin. (Cactaceae) (Taxon) 42:426.
  41. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. (Hortus 3)
  42. Magness, J. R. et al. Food and feed crops of the United States. IR Bull. 1. 1971 (Crops US)
  43. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  44. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  45. Meikle, R. D. Flora of Cyprus. (F Cyprus)
  46. Miller, A. G. & T. A. Cope Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra. (F Arabia)
  47. Mouterde, P. Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie. (F Liban)
  48. Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck A California flora. (F CalifMunz)
  49. Personal Care Products Council International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI)
  50. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  51. Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  52. Reyes-Agüero, J. A. et al. 2005. Systematic notes and a detailed description of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) Agrociencia (Montecillo) 39:395-408.
  53. Shreve, F. & I. L. Wiggins Vegetation and flora of the Sonoran desert. (F SonorDes)
  54. Standley, P. C. Flora of Costa Rica. (F CRStand)
  55. Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyermark Flora of Guatemala. (F Guat)
  56. Stevens, W. D. et al., eds. Flora de Nicaragua. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85(1-3). (F Nicaragua)
  57. Stintzing, F. C. et al. 2005. Color, betalain pattern, and antioxidant properties of cactus pear (Opuntia spp.) clones J. Agric. Food Chem. 53:442-451.
  58. Taylor, N. & D. Zappi Cacti of eastern Brazil. 2004 (Cact EBrazil)
  59. Taylor, N. P. et al. 2002. Realignment and revision of the Opuntioideae of Eastern Brazil Succ. Pl. Res. 6:130.
  60. Turrill, W. B. et al., eds. Flora of tropical East Africa. (F TE Afr)
  61. Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. (F Eur)
  62. Vigueras G., A. L. & L. Portillo 2001. Uses of Opuntia species and the potential impact of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Mexico Florida Entomol. 84:494.
  63. Wagner, W. L. et al. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i. 1990 (F Hawaii)
  64. Weber, E. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. 2003 (Invasive Pl Spec)
  65. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). (F ChinaEng)

Check other web resources for Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. :

Images:


Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?25840. Accessed 23 April 2018.