Taxon: Panax quinquefolius L.

Genus: Panax
Subgenus: Panax
Section: Panax
Family: Araliaceae
Subfamily: Aralioideae
Nomen number: 26381
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:1058. 1753 "quinquefolium"
Link to protologue:
Name Verified on: 27-Jul-2005 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 27-Jul-2005
Species priority site is:
Accessions: 1 in National Plant Germplasm System

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring (fide Ency CNatIn)
  • CITES Appendix II: ()
  • Materials: gum/resin (used in various cosmetics fide Ency CNatIn)
  • Materials: lipids (used in various cosmetics fide Ency CNatIn)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)

Distributional Range:


  • Northern America

    • Eastern Canada: Canada Ontario, Quebec
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, West Virginia
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia

  • Cultivated

  • Asia-Temperate

    • China: China


  • Webster's third new international dictionary. (Websters Dict)
  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource on 2012 (Kulturvaxtdatabas)
  • Brown, R. G. & M. L. Brown Herbaceous plants of Maryland. 1984 (HPl Mary)
  • Browne, E. T. & R. Athey Vascular plants of Kentucky: an annotated checklist. 1992 (L Kentucky)
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae. (F China)
  • CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendices I, II and III (on-line resource). (CITES Appendices)
  • Deam, C. C. Flora of Indiana. (F Indiana)
  • Duke, J. A. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 1985 (CRC MedHerbs)
  • Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  • Erhardt, W. et al. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen. 2008 (Zander Ency)
  • Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, ed. 2. 1991 (Glea Cron ed2)
  • Govaerts, R. & D. G. Frodin World checklist and bibliography of Araliaceae. 2004 (L Araliaceae)
  • Hu, S. Y. 1976. The genus Panax (ginseng) in Chinese medicine Econ. Bot. 30:14.
  • Huxley, A., ed. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 1992 (Dict Gard)
  • Kartesz, J. T. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. (L US Can ed2)
  • Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2. 1996 (Ency CNatIn)
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. (Hortus 3)
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  • McGregor, R. L. et al. (The Great Plains Flora Association) Flora of the Great Plains. (F GPlains)
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Mitchell, R. S., ed. A checklist of New York state plants. New York State Mus. Bull. 458. 1986 (L New York)
  • Mohlenbrock, R. H. & D. M. Ladd Distribution of Illinois vascular plants. 1978 (Atlas Ill)
  • Ohio Flora Committee (E. L. Braun, T. S. Cooperrider, T. R. Fisher, J. J. Furlow) The vascular flora of Ohio. (F Ohio)
  • Ownbey, G. B. & T. Morley Vascular plants of Minnesota: a checklist and atlas. 1991 (L Minn)
  • Personal Care Products Council International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI)
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  • Radford, A. E. et al. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. (F Carolin)
  • Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  • Scoggan, H. J. The flora of Canada, 4 vol. (F Canada)
  • Seymour, F. The flora of New England. (F NEng)
  • Small, E. Culinary herbs. (Culinary Herbs)
  • Smith, A. C. 1944. Araliaceae (N Amer fl) 28B:9.
  • Smith, E. B. An atlas and annotated list of the vascular plants of Arkansas. 1978 (L Arkansas)
  • Steyermark, J. A. Flora of Missouri. (F Missouri)
  • Voss, E. Michigan flora. (F Mich)
  • Wen, J. 2001. Species diversity, nomenclature, phylogeny, biogeography, and classification of the ginseng genus (Panax L., Araliaceae) (Proc Int Ginseng Wp) 69.
  • Wherry, E. T. et al. Atlas of the flora of Pennsylvania. (Atlas Penn)
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). (F ChinaEng)


Check other web resources for Panax quinquefolius L. :


  • Fruits: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seeds: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image