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Taxon: Fragaria virginiana Mill.

Genus: Fragaria
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Rosoideae
Tribe: Potentilleae
Subtribe: Fragariinae
Nomen number: 267
Place of publication: Gard. dict. ed. 8: Fragaria no. 2. 1768 (A. N. Duchesne, Hist. nat. frais. 204. 1766, as "races principales")
Link to protologue:
Comment: Duchesne's (1766) usage of binary names for "races principales" do not qualify as species names
Name Verified on: 24-Mar-2006 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 9 (9 active, 9 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Common names:

  • scarlet strawberry  (Source: Dict Rehm) - English
  • Virginia strawberry  (Source: Cornucopia) - English
  • wild strawberry  (Source: CRC MedHerbs ed2) - English
  • wild strawberry   - English (Canada)
  • fraisier de Virginie  (Source: Dict Rehm) - French
  • fraisier écarlate  (Source: Dict Rehm) - French
  • fraisier des champs   - French (Canada)
  • Scharlacherdbeere  (Source: Dict Rehm) - German
  • Virginiaerdbeere  (Source: Dict Rehm) - German
  • fresón  (Source: Dict Rehm) - Spanish
  • scharlakanssmultron  (Source: Kulturvaxtdatabas) - Swedish

Economic Importance:

  • Human food: fruit; fruit
  • Medicines: folklore; folklore

Distributional Range:


    Northern America
    • SUBARCTIC AMERICA: Canada, [Northwest Territories, Yukon] United States [Alaska]
    • EASTERN CANADA: Canada [Québec, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador]
    • WESTERN CANADA: Canada [Saskatchewan, Alberta, Manitoba, British Columbia]
    • NORTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, West Virginia]
    • NORTH-CENTRAL U.S.A.: United States [Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin]
    • NORTHWESTERN U.S.A.: United States [Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming]
    • SOUTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia]
    • SOUTH-CENTRAL U.S.A.: United States [New Mexico, Texas]
    • SOUTHWESTERN U.S.A.: United States [Arizona, California, Nevada (w.), Utah]

    Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)


  1. Ahmadi, H. & R. S. Bringhurst. 1992. Breeding strawberries at the decaploid level. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 117:856-862.
  2. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  3. Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas Note: lists as Fragaria virginiana Duchesne
  4. Cronquist, A. et al. 1972-. Intermountain flora.
  5. Darbyshire, S. J. 2003. Inventory of Canadian Agricultural Weeds Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 132-133.
  6. Darrow, G. M. 1966. The strawberry: history, breeding and physiology. 117-119.
  7. Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs
  8. Erhardt, W. et al. 2002. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 17. Auflage
  9. Facciola, S. 1990. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants Kampong Publications.
  10. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Fragaria+virginiana&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  11. Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, ed. 2 Note: lists as Fragaria virginiana Duchesne
  12. Hancock, J. F. et al. 2004. Taxonomic variation among North and South American subspecies of Fragaria virginiana Miller and Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Miller. Canad. J. Bot. 82:1632-1644. Note: this study using statistical analysis of morphological features of the wild octoploid species finds support for the recognition of Fragaria chiloensis & F. virginiana at the species level, but not for any of their infraspecific taxa
  13. Harrison, R. E. et al. 1997. Morphological and molecular variation among populations of octoploid Fragaria virginiana and F. chiloensis (Rosaceae) from North America. Amer. J. Bot. 84:612-620. Note: this study using both morphological & molecular traits found dissimilar results for supporting taxonomical relationships among subspecies of this taxon & Fragaria chiloensis
  14. Hitchcock, C. L. et al. 1955-1969. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Note: lists as Fragaria virginiana Duchesne
  15. Hokanson, K. E. et al. 2006. Relationships among subspecies of New World octoploid strawberry species, Fragaria virginiana and Fragaria chiloensis, based on simple sequence repeat marker analysis. Canad. J. Bot. 84:1829-1841.
  16. IPGRI. New World Fruits Database (on-line resource).
  17. Kartesz, J. T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Note: lists as Fragaria virginiana Duchesne
  18. Kunkel, G. 1984. Plants for human consumption Note: lists as Fragaria virginiana Duchesne
  19. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third. Note: lists as Fragaria virginiana Duchesne
  20. Liu, B. et al. 2016. Insight into octoploid strawberry (Fragaria) subgenome composition revealed by GISH analysis of pentaploid hybrids. Genome 59:79-86.
  21. Mabberley, D. J. 2002. Potentilla and Fragaria (Rosaceae) reunited. Telopea 9:800. Note: = Potentilla vesca (Mill.) E. H. L. Krause
  22. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2
  23. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2 American Herbal Products Association, Silver Spring, Maryland.
  24. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  25. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  26. Radford, A. E. et al. 1964. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Note: lists as Fragaria virginiana Duchesne
  27. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants
  28. Scoggan, H. J. 1978-1979. The flora of Canada, 4 vol. Note: lists as Fragaria virginiana Duchesne
  29. Staudt, G. 1962. Taxonomic studies in the genus Fragaria. Typification of Fragaria species known at the time of Linnaeus. Canad. J. Bot. 40:880. Note: lists as Fragaria virginiana Duchesne
  30. Staudt, G. 1999. Systematics and geographical distribution of the American strawberry species. Taxonomic studies in the genus Fragaria (Rosaceae: Potentilleae). Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 81:68.
  31. Staudt, G. 2009. Strawberry biogeography, genetics and systematics. Acta Hort. 842:71-83.
  32. Steyermark, J. A. 1977. Flora of Missouri. Note: lists as Fragaria virginiana Duchesne
  33. Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964-1980. Flora europaea. Note: lists as Fragaria virginiana Duchesne
  34. Ulrich, D. et al. 2007. Diversity of aroma patterns in wild and cultivated Fragaria accessions. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 54:1185-1196.
  35. Wofford, B. E. Database of Tennessee vascular plants (on-line resource). URL: https://herbarium.utk.edu/vascular/vascular-database.php?CategoryID=Dicots&FamilyID=Rosaceae&GenusID=Fragaria&SpeciesID=virginiana target='_blank'

Check other web resources for Fragaria virginiana Mill. :

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?267. Accessed 18 February 2020.