Taxon: Peganum harmala L.

Genus: Peganum
Family: Nitrariaceae
Nomen number: 27098
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:444. 1753
Name Verified on: 20-May-1992 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 09-May-2011
Species priority site is: North Central Regional PI Station (NC7)
Accessions: 12 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Materials: tannin/dyestuff (fide Kuwait Pl)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (fide Kingsbury; F USSR)
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant (fide Econ Pl Aust; F USSR)

Distributional Range:


  • Africa

    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Egypt; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia
    • West Tropical Africa: Mauritania
  • Asia-Temperate

    • Arabian Peninsula: Kuwait; Saudi Arabia
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Dagestan; Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia - Ciscaucasia
    • China: China - Xinjiang
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
    • Mongolia: Mongolia
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan; Cyprus; Egypt - Sinai; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical

    • Indian Subcontinent: Pakistan
  • Europe

    • Eastern Europe: Moldova; Russian Federation-European part - European part; Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Bulgaria; Greece; Italy; Romania; Serbia
    • Southwestern Europe: Spain

  • Naturalized:

    . natzd. elsewhere


  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin). 2009 (Vara kulturvaxt namn)
  • Ali, S. I. & S. M. H. Jafri, eds. Flora of Libya. 1976- (F Libya)
  • Boulos, L. Flora of Egypt. 1999- (F Egypt)
  • Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. 1965-1988 (F Turk)
  • Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  • Encke, F. et al. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage. 1984 (Zander ed13)
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource). (EuroMed Plantbase)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Foster, S. & C. Hobbs A field guide to Western medicinal plants and herbs. 2002 (W Med Pl Herbs)
  • Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS) Australian plant common name database (on-line resource). (Aust Pl Common Names)
  • Janick, J. & J. Simon, eds. Advances in new crops. 1990 (Adv New Crops)
  • Kingsbury, J. M. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. 1964 (Kingsbury)
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. Flora SSSR. 1934-1964 (F USSR)
  • Lazarides, M. & B. Hince CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia. 1993 (Econ Pl Aust)
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Middleditch, B. S. & A. M. Amer Kuwaiti plants: distribution, traditional medicine, phytochemistry,... economic value (Studies in Plant Science 2). 1991 (Kuwait Pl)
  • Migahid, A. M. Flora of Saudi Arabia, ed. 3. 1988-1990 (F Saudi ed3)
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. Flora of [West] Pakistan. 1970- (F Pak)
  • Parsons, W. T. & E. G. Cuthbertson Noxious weeds of Australia. 1992 (Noxweed Aust)
  • Quézel, P. & S. Santa Nouvelle flore de l'Algerie. 1962-1963 (F Alger)
  • Rechinger, K. H., ed. Flora iranica. 1963- (F Iran)
  • Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  • Rollins, R. C. & I. A. Al-Shehbaz 1986. Weeds of south-west Asia in North America with special reference to the Cruciferae Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 89B:298.
  • Seed Regulatory and Testing Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S.D.A. State noxious-weed seed requirements recognized in the administration of the Federal Seed Act (updated annually). (State Noxweed Seed)
  • Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest Flora of Iraq. 1966- (F Iraq)
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. 1964-1980 (F Eur)
  • Van Wyk, B.-E. & M. Wink Medicinal plants of the world. 2004 (Med Pl World)
  • Watson, J. F. Index to the native and scientific names of Indian and other eastern economic plants and products. 1868 (Names Watson)
  • Wiersema, J. H. & B. León World economic plants: a standard reference (on-line edition) [medicinal plants only]. (World Econ Pl Med)
  • Zohary, M. & N. Feinbrun-Dothan Flora palaestina. 1966- (F Palest)

Check other web resources for Peganum harmala L. :

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.


  • Fruit: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seed cluster: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seeds: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image