Taxon: Phalaris arundinacea L.

 
Genus: Phalaris
Family: Poaceae (alt.Gramineae)
  Subfamily: Pooideae
      Tribe: Poeae
        Subtribe: Phalaridinae
Nomen number: 27512
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:55. 1753
Name Verified on: 25-Jan-1996 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 09-May-2011
Species priority site is: Western Regional PI Station (W6)
Accessions: 164 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: erosion control (fide Grass VarUSA)
  • Environmental: ornamental (fide Invasive Pl Spec)
  • Animal food: fodder (fide Grass VarUSA)
  • Animal food: forage (fide Grass VarUSA)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (fide Kingsbury)
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant (fide Weed CIBA; Invasive Pl Spec)

Distributional Range:

    Native:

  • Africa

    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Madeira Islands
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Egypt; Tunisia
  • Asia-Temperate

    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Dagestan; Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia - Ciscaucasia
    • China: China
    • Eastern Asia: Japan; Korea; Taiwan
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
    • Mongolia: Mongolia
    • Siberia: Russian Federation-Eastern Siberia - Eastern Siberia; Russian Federation-Western Siberia - Western Siberia
    • Western Asia: Iran; Iraq; Turkey
  • Europe

    • East Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation-European part - European part; Ukraine
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Finland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece; Italy; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Portugal; Spain
  • Northern America

    • Eastern Canada: Canada - Quebec, - Nova Scotia, - Ontario, - Prince Edward Island, - New Brunswick, - Newfoundland
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, - Iowa, - Kansas, - Minnesota, - Missouri, - Nebraska, - North Dakota, - South Dakota, - Wisconsin
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, - Indiana, - Maine, - Massachusetts, - Michigan, - New Hampshire, - New Jersey, - New York, - Ohio, - Pennsylvania, - Rhode Island, - Vermont, - West Virginia
    • Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Idaho, - Montana, - Oregon, - Washington
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - New Mexico
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Delaware, - Kentucky, - Maryland, - North Carolina, - Tennessee, - Virginia
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona, - California, - Nevada, - Utah
    • Subarctic America: Canada - Northwest Territory, - Yukon Territory; United States - Alaska
    • Western Canada: Canada - Saskatchewan, - Alberta, - Manitoba, - British Columbia

  • Naturalized:

  • Africa

    • Southern Africa: Lesotho; South Africa
  • Australasia

    • Australia: Australia
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • Northern America

    • : Mexico
  • Pacific

    • North-Central Pacific: United States - Hawaii
  • Southern America

    • Mesoamerica: El Salvador
    • Southern South America: Argentina; Uruguay
    • Western South America: Colombia

  • Cultivated:

  • Asia-Temperate

    • China: China
  • Northern America

    • : Canada; United States

References:

  • Webster's third new international dictionary. 1961 (Websters Dict)
  • Plants of southern Africa: an online checklist. (Pl SAfr Online)
  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin). 2009 (Vara kulturvaxt namn)
  • Alderson, J. & W. C. Sharp Grass varieties in the United States, U.S.D.A. Agric. Handb. 170, rev. ed. 1995 (Grass VarUSA)
  • Baldini, R. M. 1995. Revision of the genus Phalaris L. (Gramineae) (Webbia) 49:269.
  • Bor, N. L. The grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. 1960 (Grass BCIP)
  • Boulos, L. Flora of Egypt checklist. 1995 (L Egypt)
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae. 1959- (F China)
  • CIBA-GEIGY, Basel, Switzerland Documenta CIBA-GEIGY (Grass weeds 1. 1980, 2. 1981; Monocot weeds 3. 1982; Dicot weeds 1. 1988) (Weed CIBA)
  • Dassanayake, M. D. & F. R. Fosberg, eds. A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon. 1980- (F Ceylon)
  • Demilly, D. et al. Liste alphabétique des principales espèces de plantes cultivées et de mauvaises herbes. Noms latins et noms français, ed. 7. 2001 (L Noms French ed7)
  • Englert, J. M. et al. USDA-NRCS Improved conservation plant materials released by NRCS and cooperators. 1999- (NRCS Cons Pl Mat)
  • FNA Editorial Committee Flora of North America. 1993- (F NAmer)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. 2011. Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia (Darwiniana) 49:139-247.
  • Hickman, J. C., ed. The Jepson manual: higher plants of California. 1993 (F CalifJep)
  • Hitchcock, A. S. Manual of the grasses of the United States, ed. 2. 1950 (Grass US)
  • Holm, L. et al. A geographical atlas of world weeds. 1979 (Atlas WWeed)
  • Howell, C. J. & J. W. D. Sawyer New Zealand naturalised vascular plant checklist. 2006 (NZeal Nat Vasc Pl)
  • Huxley, A., ed. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 1992 (Dict Gard)
  • Instituto de Botánica Darwinion Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares. 2008 (F ConoSur)
  • International Seed Testing Association A Multilingual Glossary of Common Plant-Names 1. Field crops, grasses and vegetables, ed. 2. 1982 (Mult Glossary Crops)
  • Kartesz, J. T. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 1994 (L US Can ed2)
  • Kingsbury, J. M. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. 1964 (Kingsbury)
  • Koyama, T. Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions. 1987 (Grass Japan)
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. 1976 (Hortus 3)
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  • Meyer, M. H. 2012. Chapter 3. Ornamental grasses in the United States Hort. Rev. 39:121-152.
  • Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants (Kulturpflanze) 34:116.
  • Munro, D. B. Canadian poisonous plants information system (on-line resource). (Can Poison Pl)
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. Flora of [West] Pakistan. 1970- (F Pak)
  • Ohwi, J. Flora of Japan (Engl. ed.). 1965 (F JapanOhwi)
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  • Quézel, P. & S. Santa Nouvelle flore de l'Algerie. 1962-1963 (F Alger)
  • Randall, R. P. The introduced flora of Australia and its weed status. 2007 (Weed CRCAustralia)
  • Rechinger, K. H., ed. Flora iranica. 1963- (F Iran)
  • Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  • Soreng, R. J. et al. 2003. Catalogue of New World grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48:480-481.
  • Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest Flora of Iraq. 1966- (F Iraq)
  • Turrill, W. B. et al., eds. Flora of tropical East Africa. 1952- (F TE Afr)
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. 1964-1980 (F Eur)
  • Tzvelev, N. N. Zlaki SSSR. 1976 (Grass USSR)
  • Walters, S. M. et al., eds. European garden flora. 1986- (Eur Gard F)
  • Weber, E. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. 2003 (Invasive Pl Spec)
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). 1994- (F ChinaEng)

Synonyms:

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