Jump to: SynonymsCommon NamesEconomic ImportanceDistributional RangeReferencesOther Web References

Taxon: Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.

 
Genus: Phragmites
Family: Poaceae (alt.Gramineae)
Subfamily: Arundinoideae
Tribe: Molinieae
Nomen number: 28091
Place of publication: Nomencl. bot. ed. 2, 1:143. 1840; 2:324. 1841
Link to protologue:
Name Verified on: 18-Aug-2006 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 09-May-2011
Species priority site is: Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA (S9)
Accessions: 46 (5 active, 0 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Synonyms:

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: erosion control (fide Aquat Bot 51:87-101. 1996; Invasive Pl Spec)
  • Medicines:
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant; potential seed contaminant

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Africa
    • MACARONESIA: Cape Verde, Portugal, [Madeira Islands] Spain [Canary Islands]
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia
    • NORTHEAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan
    • EAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Kenya
    • WEST-CENTRAL TROPICAL AFRICA: Cameroon (n.)
    • WEST TROPICAL AFRICA: Gambia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal
    • SOUTH TROPICAL AFRICA: Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe
    • SOUTHERN AFRICA: Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, [Cape Province, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Transvaal] Swaziland
    • WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN: Madagascar

    Asia-Temperate
    • ARABIAN PENINSULA: Bahrain, Kuwait, Yemen
    • WESTERN ASIA: Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey
    • CAUCASUS: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russian Federation [Checheno-Ingushetia, Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia, Krasnodar, North Ossetia, Stavropol]
    • SIBERIA: Russian Federation [Altay, Buryatia, Chita, Gorno-Altay, Irkutsk, Kemerovo, Krasnoyarsk, Kurgan, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk, Tuva, Tyumen, Yakutia-Sakha]
    • MIDDLE ASIA: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
    • MONGOLIA: Mongolia
    • RUSSIAN FAR EAST: Russian Federation [Khabarovsk, Primorye, Amur, Kamchatka, Sakhalin]
    • CHINA: China
    • EASTERN ASIA: Japan, Korea

    Asia-Tropical
    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: Pakistan

    Australasia
    • AUSTRALIA: Australia [Tasmania, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia (s.), Northern Territory]

    Europe
    • NORTHERN EUROPE: Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, [Astrakhan, Kalmykia, Rostov, Saratov, Volgograd] Russian Federation-European part, [European part] Ukraine (incl. Krym)
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece (incl. Crete), Italy (incl. Sardinia, Sicily), Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France (incl. Corsica), Portugal, Spain (incl. Baleares)

    Northern America
    • SUBARCTIC AMERICA: Canada [Northwest Territory (s.w.)]
    • EASTERN CANADA: Canada [New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Quebec]
    • WESTERN CANADA: Canada [Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan]
    • NORTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia]
    • NORTH-CENTRAL U.S.A.: United States [Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin]
    • NORTHWESTERN U.S.A.: United States [Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming]
    • SOUTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Alabama, Arkansas (n.), Delaware, Florida, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina]
    • SOUTH-CENTRAL U.S.A.: United States [New Mexico, Texas]
    • SOUTHWESTERN U.S.A.: United States [Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah]
    • NORTHERN MEXICO: Mexico [Baja Norte, Baja Sur, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas]
    • SOUTHERN MEXICO: Mexico [Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, Guanajuato, Jalisco, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Puebla, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Yucatan]

    Southern America
    • CARIBBEAN: Bahamas, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Puerto Rico, St. Lucia
    • CENTRAL AMERICA: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama
    • NORTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela
    • WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
    • SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: Argentina, Chile, Uruguay


    Naturalized

    Australasia
    • NEW ZEALAND: New Zealand

    Northern America
    • United States (of European populations)


    Other (exact native range obscure)

References:

  1. Webster's third new international dictionary. (Websters Dict)
  2. Plants of southern Africa: an online checklist. (Pl SAfr Online)
  3. Adams, C. Flowering plants of Jamaica. 1972 (F Jam)
  4. Ali, S. I. & S. M. H. Jafri, eds. Flora of Libya. (F Libya)
  5. Arechavaleta, M. et al., eds. Lista preliminar de especies silvestres de Cabo Verde: hongos, plantas y animales terrestres. 2005 (L Cabo Verde)
  6. Boulos, L. Flora of Egypt. 1999- (F Egypt)
  7. Boulos, L. Flora of Egypt checklist. (L Egypt)
  8. Boulos, L. & M. N. El-Hadidi The weeds of Egypt. (Weeds Egypt)
  9. Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45. 1993 (L Peru)
  10. Chinese Academy of Sciences Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae. (F China)
  11. CIBA-GEIGY, Basel, Switzerland Documenta CIBA-GEIGY (Grass weeds 1. 1980, 2. 1981; Monocot weeds 3. 1982; Dicot weeds 1. 1988) (Weed CIBA)
  12. Correll, D. S. & H. B. Correll Flora of the Bahama archipelago. (F Bahamas)
  13. Davidse, G. et al., eds. Flora mesoamericana. (F Mesoamer)
  14. Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. (F Turk)
  15. Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  16. Englert, J. M. et al. USDA-NRCS Improved conservation plant materials released by NRCS and cooperators. 1999- (NRCS Cons Pl Mat)
  17. Euro+Med Editorial Committee Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource). (EuroMed Plantbase)
  18. Exell, A. W. et al., eds. Flora zambesiaca. (F Zamb)
  19. Fedorov, A. A., ed. Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions (Engl. transl.). (F Russia Eur Part)
  20. FNA Editorial Committee Flora of North America. (F NAmer)
  21. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  22. George, A. S., ed. Flora of Australia. (F Aust)
  23. Gibbs-Russell, G. E. et al. Grasses of southern Africa. Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa vol. 58. 1990 (Grass SAfr)
  24. Giraldo-Cañas, D. 2011. Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia (Darwiniana) 49:139-247.
  25. Görts-van Rijn, A. R. A., ed. Flora of the Guianas. (F Guianas)
  26. Hansen, A. & P. Sunding Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, ed. 4. Sommerfeltia vol. 17. (L Macar ed4)
  27. Herrera-Arrieta, Y. Las Gramíneus de Durango. 2001 (Grass Durango)
  28. Howard, R. Flora of the lesser Antilles. (F LAnt)
  29. Instituto de Botánica Darwinion Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares. (F ConoSur)
  30. Izquierdo Z., I. et al., eds. Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias: hongos, plantas y animales terrestres. 2004 (L Canarias)
  31. Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75. 1999 (L Ecuador)
  32. Kartesz, J. T. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. (L US Can ed2)
  33. Kharkevich, S. S., ed. Vascular plants of the Russian Far East. (F Russ Far East)
  34. Krasnoborov, I. M., ed. Flora of Siberia (English translation). 2000- (F Siberia)
  35. Liogier, H. A. & L. F. Martorell Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, ed. 2. (F PR ed2)
  36. Mal, T. K. & L. Narine 2004. The biology of Canadian weeds. 129. Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud Canad. J. Pl. Sci. 84:365-396.
  37. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  38. Meikle, R. D. Flora of Cyprus. (F Cyprus)
  39. Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants (Kulturpflanze) 34:117.
  40. Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. Flora of [West] Pakistan. (F Pak)
  41. Norton, J. et al. Illustrated checklist of the flora of Qatar. (Ill L Qatar)
  42. Ostendorp, W. 1996. Estimation of mechanical resistance of lakeside Phragmites stands Aquatic Bot. 51:87-101.
  43. Personal Care Products Council International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI)
  44. Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  45. Renvoize, S. A. Gramineas de Bolivia. 1998 (Grass Bolivia)
  46. Saltonstall, K. 2011. Remnant native Phragmites australis maintains genetic diversity despite multiple threats Conservation Genet. 12:1027-1033.
  47. Saltonstall, K. et al. 2004. Recognition of Phragmites australis subsp. americanus (Poaceae: Arundinoideae) in North America: evidence from morphological and genetic analyses (Sida) 21:683-692.
  48. Sell, P. & G. Murrell Flora of Great Britain and Ireland. (F GB Ire)
  49. Skvortsov, A. K., ed. 2006. Flora of the Lower Volga region. 2006- (F LowVolga) 1:181.
  50. Steyermark, J. A. et al., eds. Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana. (F VenGuay)
  51. Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest Flora of Iraq. (F Iraq)
  52. Tzvelev, N. N. Zlaki SSSR. 1976 (Grass USSR)
  53. Ugarte, E. et al. 2011. Vascular alien flora, Chile (Check List) 7:365-380.
  54. USDA National Agricultural Library National Invasive Species Information Center (on-line resource). (Nat Invasive Sp Info)
  55. Valdés, B. et al., eds. Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du nord du Maroc, incluant des clés d'identification. 2002 (L NMaroc)
  56. Weber, E. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. 2003 (Invasive Pl Spec)
  57. Wood, J. R. I. A handbook of the Yemen flora. (F Yemen)
  58. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). (F ChinaEng)
  59. Zohary, M. & N. Feinbrun-Dothan Flora palaestina. (F Palest)
  60. Zuloaga, F. O. & O. Morrone, eds. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de la República Argentina. I. Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Angiospermae (Monocotyledonae), II. Dicotyledonae. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60, 74. (L Argent)
  61. Zuloaga, F. O. et al. 2003. Catalogue of New World grasses (Poaceae): III. Subfamilies Panicoideae, Aristidoideae, Arundinoideae, and Danthonioideae Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 46:537.

Check other web resources for Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. :


Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?28091. Accessed 15 October 2018.