Taxon: Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.

Genus: Poncirus
Family: Rutaceae
  Subfamily: Aurantioideae
      Tribe: Aurantieae
        Subtribe: Citrinae
Nomen number: 29344
Place of publication: Sylva tellur. 143. 1838
Name Verified on: 15-May-2008 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 15-May-2008
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Riverside (RIV)
Accessions: 133 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental (fide Bot Citrus)
  • Gene sources: cold tolerance for citrus (fide Citrus CGC, pers. comm. 1998)
  • Gene sources: disease resistance for citrus (fide Citrus CGC, pers. comm. 1998)
  • Gene sources: dwarfing for citrus (fide Citrus CGC, pers. comm. 1998)
  • Gene sources: graft stock for kumquats (fide Pl Res SEAs 2:171. 1991)
  • Gene sources: graft stock relative for citrus (based on crosses with several species of Citrus fide Breed Pl Tree Crops 117. 2009)
  • Gene sources: poor-soil tolerance for citrus (fide Citrus CGC, pers. comm. 1998)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of citrus crops (based on crossing barriers with Citrus fide Wild Crop Rel Trp Fr 3:46. 2011)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (fide Lampe & McCann)

Distributional Range:


  • Asia-Temperate

    • China: China - Anhui, - Gansu, - Guangdong, - Guangxi, - Guizhou, - Henan, - Hubei, - Hunan, - Jiangsu, - Jiangxi, - Shaanxi, - Shandong, - Shanxi, - Zhejiang

  • Cultivated:

    . widely cult. in temperate regions


  • Bensky, D., A. Gamble, & T. J. Kaptchuk Chinese herbal medicine: Materia medica, rev. ed. 1993 (Chin Herb Med)
  • Bhusal, R. C. et al. 2002. Selection of rootstocks for flooding and drought tolerance in citrus species Pakistan J. Biol. Sci. 5:509-512.
  • Botanical Society of the British Isles BSBI taxon database (on-line resource). (BSBI)
  • Cantuarias-Avolés, T. et al. 2010. Tree performance and fruit yield and quality of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin grafted on 12 rootstocks Sci. Hort. 123:318-322.
  • Citrus Crop Germplasm Committee 1998. pers. comm. (pers. comm.)
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. 1970 (F Tex)
  • Courboulex, M. & H. de Lorrain Les agrumes: oranges, citron, pamplemousses, kumquats. 1997 (Les Agrumes)
  • Dambier, D. et al. 2011. Somatic hybridization for citrus rootstock breeding: an effective tool to solve important issues of the Mediterranean citrus industry Pl. Cell Rep. 30:883-900.
  • Encke, F. et al. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage. 1984 (Zander ed13)
  • Facciola, S. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants. 1990 (Cornucopia)
  • Forest Experimental Station, Korea Illustrated woody plants of Korea. 1966 (WPl Korea)
  • Froelicher, Y. et al. 2011. New universal mitochondrial PCR markers reveal new information on maternal citrus phylogeny Tree Genet. Genomes 7:49-61.
  • Gmitter, F. G. et al. 2009. Citrus breeding (Breed Pl Tree Crops) 105-134.
  • Huxley, A., ed. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 1992 (Dict Gard)
  • Jiangsu Inst. Bot., ed. v. 1; Shan. R. H., ed. v. 2 Jiangsu Zhiwuzhi (Flora of Jiangsu). 1977-1982 (F Chiangsu)
  • Keys, J. D. Chinese herbs: their botany, chemistry, and pharmacodynamics. 1976 (Chin Herbs)
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. Flora SSSR. 1934-1964 (F USSR)
  • Lampe, K. F. & M. A. McCann AMA handbook of poisonous and injurious plants. 1985 (Lampe & McCann)
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. 1976 (Hortus 3)
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants (Kulturpflanze) 34:119.
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. Flora of [West] Pakistan. 1970- (F Pak)
  • Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University Medicinal plants in the Republic of Korea. WHO Regional Publications Western Pacific Series No. 21. 1998 (Med Pl Korea)
  • Penjor, T. et al. 2013. Phylogenetic relationships of Citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences (PloS One) 8(4): e62574.
  • Penjor, T. et al. 2013. Phylogenetic relationships of Citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences (PloS One) 8(4): e62574.
  • Rao, N. M. et al. 2011. Chapter 3. Citrus (Wild Crop Rel Trp Fr) 46, 49.
  • Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  • Reichel, S. 1998. pers. comm. (pers. comm.)
  • Spiegel-Roy, P. & E. E. Goldschmidt Biology of Citrus. Cambridge Univ. Press. 1996 (Biol Citrus)
  • Steward, A. N. Manual of vascular plants of the lower Yangtze valley. 1958 (F LowYangtze)
  • Swingle, W. T. & P. C. Reece The botany of Citrus and its wild relatives. 1967 (Bot Citrus)
  • Verheij, E. W. M. & R. E. Coronel, eds. 1991. Edible fruits and nuts (Pl Res SEAs) 2:171.
  • Walker, E. Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu Islands. 1976 (F Okin)
  • Wiersema, J. H. & B. León World economic plants: a standard reference (on-line edition) [medicinal plants only]. (World Econ Pl Med)
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). 1994- (F ChinaEng)

Check other web resources for Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. :

  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.