Taxon: Hedera helix L.

Genus: Hedera
Family: Araliaceae
  Subfamily: Aralioideae
Nomen number: 300252
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:202. 1753
Name Verified on: 29-Sep-1997 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 09-May-2011
Species priority site is: National Arboretum (NA)
Accessions: 27 in National Plant Germplasm System

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental (fide Invasive Pl Spec)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (fide Kingsbury; Lampe & McCann; Cooper & Johnson ed2)

Distributional Range:


  • Africa

    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia
  • Asia-Temperate

    • Caucasus: Armenia; Georgia; Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia - Ciscaucasia
    • Western Asia: Cyprus; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
  • Europe

    • East Europe: Belarus; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Ukraine
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czechoslovakia; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Switzerland
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Ireland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bulgaria; Former Yugoslavia; Greece; Italy; Romania
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Portugal; Spain

  • Naturalized:

  • Australasia

    • Australia: Australia
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • Northern America

    • : Canada; United States
  • Pacific

    • North-Central Pacific: United States - Hawaii

  • Cultivated:

    . widely cult.


  • Ackerfield, J. 2001. Trichome morphology in Hedera (Araliaceae) Edinburgh J. Bot. 58:259-267.
  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin). 2009 (Vara kulturvaxt namn)
  • Allan, H. H. B. et al. Flora of New Zealand. 1961- (F NZeal)
  • Bisset, N. G., ed. Herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals. A handbook for practice on a scientific basis. 1994 (Herbal Drugs)
  • Blumenthal, M., ed. The complete German Commission E monographs: therapeutic guide to herbal medicines. 1998 (German CommE Monog)
  • Botanical Society of the British Isles BSBI taxon database (on-line resource). (BSBI)
  • Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning. 1998 (Cooper & Johnson ed2)
  • Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. 1965-1988 (F Turk)
  • Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  • Encke, F. et al. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 14. Auflage. 1993 (Zander ed14)
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource). (EuroMed Plantbase)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Foreman, D. B. & N. G. Walsh Flora of Victoria. 1993- (F Victoria)
  • Govaerts, R. & D. G. Frodin World checklist and bibliography of Araliaceae. 2004 (L Araliaceae)
  • Greuter, W. et al., eds. Med-Checklist. 1984- (L Medit)
  • Henderson, L. Alien weeds and invasive plants: a complete guide to declared weeds and invaders in South Africa. Plant Protection Research Institute, Handbook 12. 2001 (Weeds SAfr 2001)
  • Hnatiuk, R. J. Census of Australian vascular plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series No. 11. 1990 (L Aust)
  • Huxley, A., ed. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 1992 (Dict Gard)
  • Izquierdo Z., I. et al., eds. Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias: hongos, plantas y animales terrestres. 2004 (L Canarias)
  • Kingsbury, J. M. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. 1964 (Kingsbury)
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. Flora SSSR. 1934-1964 (F USSR)
  • Krüssmann, G. Manual of cultivated broad-leaved trees and shrubs (English translation of Handbuch der Laubgehölze. 1976). 1984 (Krussmann)
  • Lampe, K. F. & M. A. McCann AMA handbook of poisonous and injurious plants. 1985 (Lampe & McCann)
  • Lazarides, M. & B. Hince CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia. 1993 (Econ Pl Aust)
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Meyer, F. G. et al. A catalog of cultivated woody plants of the southeastern United States. 1994 (L CultWPl SE US)
  • Munro, D. B. Canadian poisonous plants information system (on-line resource). (Can Poison Pl)
  • Peirce, A. The American Pharmaceutical Association practical guide to natural medicines. 1999 (Pract Guide Nat Med)
  • Stace, C. New flora of the British Isles. 1995 (F BritStace)
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. 1964-1980 (F Eur)
  • Van Wyk, B.-E. & M. Wink Medicinal plants of the world. 2004 (Med Pl World)
  • Vibrans, H., ed. Malezas de México (on-line resource). (Malezas Mex)
  • Wagner, W. L. et al. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i. 1990 (F Hawaii)
  • Weber, E. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. 2003 (Invasive Pl Spec)
  • Wiersema, J. H. & B. León World economic plants: a standard reference (on-line edition) [medicinal plants only]. (World Econ Pl Med)

Check other web resources for Hedera helix L. :

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories
  • BONAP North American Plant Atlas of the Biota of North America Program:
  • AVH: Australia's Virtual Herbarium
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ICRA: International Cultivar Registration Authority (on-line resource). for Hedera helix cultivars
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.


  • Fruit: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Fruit and seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image