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Taxon: Trifolium pratense L.

 
Genus: Trifolium
Subgenus: Trifolium
Section: Trifolium
Family: Fabaceae (alt.Leguminosae)
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Trifolieae
Nomen number: 300623
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:768. 1753
Link to protologue:
Typification: View in Linnean Typification Project
Name Verified on: 23-Mar-2007 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 2472 (1364 active, 1077 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Animal food: fodder; forage
  • Bee plants:
  • Environmental:
  • Food additives:
  • Harmful organism host: crop pests
  • Medicines: folklore; folklore
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals; mammals; mammals

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Africa
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Algeria (n.), Morocco, Tunisia

    Asia-Temperate
    • WESTERN ASIA: Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Turkey
    • CAUCASUS: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia [Ciscaucasia]
    • SIBERIA: Russian Federation-Eastern Siberia, [Eastern Siberia (s.)] Russian Federation-Western Siberia [Western Siberia]
    • MIDDLE ASIA: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan

    Asia-Tropical
    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: India (n.w.), Pakistan (n.)

    Europe
    • NORTHERN EUROPE: Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Ukraine
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Albania, Bulgaria, Former Yugoslavia, Greece, Italy (incl. Sardinia, Sicily), Romania
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France (incl. Corsica), Portugal, Spain


    Cultivated (also cult.)

    Naturalized (widely natzd. in temperate regions)

References:

  1. Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource). URL: http://www.agroatlas.ru/en/content/cultural/Trifolium_pratense_K/ target='_blank'
  2. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  3. Converse, R. H., ed. 1987. Virus diseases of small fruits. USDA Agriculture Handbook 631 35.
  4. Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson. 1998. Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning Note: poisonous
  5. Cronquist, A. et al. 1972-. Intermountain flora.
  6. Davis, P. H., ed. 1965-1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  7. Demilly, D. et al. 2001. Liste alphabétique des principales espèces de plantes cultivées et de mauvaises herbes. Noms latins et noms français, ed. 7 Note: GEVES-SNES, Beaucouzé, France
  8. Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs
  9. Duke, J. A. 1981. Handbook of legumes of world economic importance
  10. Ellison, N. W. et al. 2006. Molecular phylogenetics of the clover genus (Trifolium - Leguminosae). Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 39:688-705.
  11. Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  12. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Trifolium+pratense&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  13. Gillett, J. M. & N. L. Taylor (M. Collins ed.). 2001. The world of clovers 326.
  14. Graham, E. H. 1941. Legumes for erosion control and wildlife. USDA Misc. Publ. 412.
  15. Greene, S. L. et al. 2004. Relating morphologic and RAPD marker variation to collection site environment in wild populations of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 51:643-653.
  16. Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6
  17. Huang, S. F. & T. C. Huang. 1987. Taxonomic treatment of the Papilionoideae (Leguminosae) of Taiwan. Taiwania 32:11-117.
  18. Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening
  19. Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS). Australian plant common name database (on-line resource).
  20. International Seed Testing Association. 1982. A Multilingual Glossary of Common Plant-Names 1. Field crops, grasses and vegetables, ed. 2.
  21. Kellerman, T. S. et al. 1988. Plant poisonings and mycotoxicoses of livestock in Southern Africa Note: poisonous
  22. Kingsbury, J. M. 1964. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. Note: poisonous
  23. Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934-1964. Flora SSSR.
  24. Kongkiatngam, P. et al. 1995. Genetic variation within and between two cultivars of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.): Comparisons of morphological, isozyme, and RAPD markers. Euphytica 84:237-246. Note: Netherlands journal of plant breeding
  25. Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster. 1996. Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2
  26. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2
  27. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2 American Herbal Products Association, Silver Spring, Maryland.
  28. Meikle, R. D. 1977-1985. Flora of Cyprus.
  29. Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants. Kulturpflanze 34:132.
  30. Munro, D. B. Canadian poisonous plants information system (on-line resource).
  31. Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. 1970-. Flora of [West] Pakistan.
  32. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  33. Pignatti, S. 1982. Flora d'Italia.
  34. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  35. Pottier-Alapetite, G. 1979-1981. Flore de la Tunisie: Angiospermes-Dicotyledones.
  36. Quézel, P. & S. Santa. 1962-1963. Nouvelle flore de l'Algerie.
  37. Rechinger, K. H., ed. 1963-. Flora iranica.
  38. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants
  39. Smythies, B. E. 1984-1986. Flora of Spain and the Balearic Islands: checklist of vascular plants. Englera 3:1-882.
  40. Taylor, N. L. et al. 1963. Interspecific hybridization of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Crop Sci. (Madison) 3:549-552.
  41. Taylor, N. L. 2008. A century of clover breeding developments in the United States. Crop Sci. (Madison) 48:1-13.
  42. Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest. 1966-. Flora of Iraq.
  43. Walker, E. 1976. Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu Islands.
  44. Watson, L. E. et al. 2000. Molecular phylogeny of Old World Trifolium (Fabaceae), based on plastid and nuclear markers. Pl. Syst. Evol. 224:153-171.
  45. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994-. Flora of China (English edition).
  46. Zohary, M. & D. Heller. 1984. The genus Trifolium 357.
  47. 1998. Federal Seed Act and Regulations, Agricultural and Vegetable Kind Lists, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, Seed Regulatory and Testing Branch.
  48. 2018. Mid-Atlantic invasive plant species (on-line resource)

Check other web resources for Trifolium pratense L. :

  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • ILDIS: International Legume Database & Information Service
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?300623. Accessed 20 September 2019.