Taxon: Trifolium repens L.

Genus: Trifolium
Subgenus: Trifolium
Section: Trifoliastrum
Family: Fabaceae (alt.Leguminosae)
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Trifolieae
Nomen number: 300625
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:767. 1753
Link to protologue:
Name Verified on: 26-Mar-2007 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 02-Oct-2017
Species priority site is: Western Regional PI Station (W6)
Accessions: 817 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Harmful organism host: crop diseases (fide Virus Diseases 35. 1987)
  • Harmful organism host: crop pests (fide Virus Diseases 35. 1987)
  • Environmental: soil improver (fide Cover Crop Database)
  • Animal food: forage (fide Intermt F; Food Feed Crops US; Invasive Pl Spec)
  • Gene sources: primary genetic relative of white clover (based on the natural variability of white clover)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (fide Kingsbury; Kellerman et al.; Cooper & Johnson ed2)
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant (fide Geigy Weed Tables. 1968; Invasive Pl Spec)

Distributional Range:


  • Africa

    • Northern Africa: Algeria ; Egypt ; Libya ; Morocco ; Tunisia
  • Asia-Temperate

    • Caucasus: Armenia ; Azerbaijan ; Georgia ; Russian Federation Checheno-Ingushetia, Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia, Krasnodar, North Ossetia, Stavropol
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan ; Kyrgyzstan ; Tajikistan ; Turkmenistan ; Uzbekistan
    • Siberia: Russian Federation Altay, Buryatia, Chelyabinsk, Gorno-Altay, Irkutsk, Kemerovo, Khakassia, Khanty-Mansi, Krasnoyarsk, Kurgan, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Sverdlovsk, Tomsk, Tuva, Tyumen, Ust Orda Buryat
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan ; Cyprus ; Iran ; Iraq ; Israel ; Jordan ; Lebanon ; Syria ; Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical

    • Indian Subcontinent: Pakistan
  • Europe

    • Eastern Europe: Belarus ; Estonia ; Latvia ; Lithuania ; Moldova ; Russian Federation Arkhangelsk, Astrakhan, Bashkortostan, Belgorod, Bryansk, Chuvashia, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kalmykia, Kaluga, Karelia, Kirov, Komi, Kostroma, Kursk, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Mari-El, Mordvinia, Moscow, Murmansk, Nenets, Novgorod, Orel, Orenburg, Penza, Perm, Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan, Saratov, Smolensk, Tambov, Tatarstan, Tula, Udmurtia, Ulyanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl; Ukraine
    • Middle Europe: Austria ; Belgium ; Czechoslovakia ; Germany ; Hungary ; Netherlands ; Poland ; Switzerland
    • Northern Europe: Denmark ; Faroe Islands ; Finland ; Iceland ; Ireland ; Norway ; Sweden ; United Kingdom
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania ; Bulgaria ; Former Yugoslavia ; Greece ; Italy ; Romania
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal ; Spain

  • Naturalized

  • Africa

    • East Tropical Africa: Kenya ; Tanzania
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Ethiopia
    • Southern Africa: South Africa KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape, Western Cape, Gauteng, Mpumalanga, North West
  • Asia-Temperate

    • China: China
  • Asia-Tropical

    • Indian Subcontinent: Bhutan ; India ; Sri Lanka
  • Australasia

    • Australia: Australia
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • Northern America

    • Canada ; Mexico ; United States
  • Pacific

    • North-Central Pacific: United States Hawaii
  • Southern America

    • South America
    • Caribbean: West Indies
    • Central America: Central America

  • Cultivated


  • Webster's third new international dictionary. (Websters Dict)
  • Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource). (AgroAtlas)
  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource on 2012 (Kulturvaxtdatabas)
  • Badr, A. et al. 2002. Ancestors of white clover (Trifolium repens L.), as reveales by isozyme polymorphisms Theor. Appl. Genet. 106:143-148.
  • Burdon, J. J. 1980. Intra-specific diversity in a natural population of Trifolium repens J. Ecol. 68:717-735.
  • Burdon, J. J. 1983. Biological flora of the British Isles. No. 154. Trifolium repens J. Ecol. 71:307-330.
  • CIBA-GEIGY, Basel, Switzerland The CIBA-GEIGY Weed Tables. 1974 (Weed TabCIBA)
  • Converse, R. H., ed. Virus diseases of small fruits. USDA Agriculture Handbook 631. 1987 (Virus Diseases)
  • Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning. 1998 (Cooper & Johnson ed2)
  • Cronquist, A. et al. Intermountain flora. (Intermt F)
  • Duke, J. A. Handbook of legumes of world economic importance. 1981 (Leg WorldEc)
  • Ellison, N. W. et al. 2006. Molecular phylogenetics of the clover genus (Trifolium - Leguminosae) Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 39:688-705.
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource). (EuroMed Plantbase)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Germishuizen, G. & N. L. Meyer, eds. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14. 2003 (Pl SAfr ed2)
  • Gillett, J. M. & N. L. Taylor (M. Collins ed.) The world of clovers. 2001 (Clovers) 342.
  • Graham, E. H. Legumes for erosion control and wildlife. USDA Misc. Publ. 412. (Leg ErWild)
  • Inst. Bot. V. L. Komarova, Acad. Sci. URSS Plantae asiae centralis. (F CAsia)
  • International Seed Testing Association A Multilingual Glossary of Common Plant-Names 1. Field crops, grasses and vegetables, ed. 2. (Mult Glossary Crops)
  • Kellerman, T. S. et al. Plant poisonings and mycotoxicoses of livestock in Southern Africa. 1988 (Kellerman et al.)
  • Kingsbury, J. M. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. (Kingsbury)
  • Kumar, S & P. V. Sane Legumes of South Asia: a checklist. 2003 (Leg SAsia)
  • Lee, Y. N. Flora of Korea. (F Korea)
  • Lock, J. M. Legumes of Africa: a checklist. 1989 (Leg Africa)
  • Mabberley, D. J. The plant-book: a portable dictionary of the vascular plants, ed. 2. 1997 (Pl Book)
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  • Meikle, R. D. Flora of Cyprus. (F Cyprus)
  • Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants (Kulturpflanze) 34:132.
  • Munro, D. B. Canadian poisonous plants information system (on-line resource). (Can Poison Pl)
  • National Academy of Sciences Tropical legumes: resources for the future. 1979 (Trop Leg)
  • Personal Care Products Council International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI)
  • Pignatti, S. Flora d'Italia. (F Ital)
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  • Quézel, P. & S. Santa Nouvelle flore de l'Algerie. (F Alger)
  • Rechinger, K. H., ed. Flora iranica. (F Iran)
  • Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  • Smythies, B. E. Flora of Spain and the Balearic Islands: checklist of vascular plants. Englera 3:1-882. (L Spain)
  • Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest Flora of Iraq. (F Iraq)
  • University of California Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program UC SAREP on-line cover crop database (on-line resource). (Cover Crop Database)
  • Vibrans, H., ed. Malezas de México (on-line resource). (Malezas Mex)
  • Weber, E. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. 2003 (Invasive Pl Spec)
  • Williams, W. M. & S. N. Nichols 2011. Chapter 13: Trifolium (Wild Crop Rel Leg Cr) 249-272.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). (F ChinaEng)
  • Yakovlev, G. P. et al. Legumes of Northern Eurasia. 1996 (Leg NEurasia)
  • Zohary, M. & D. Heller 1984. The genus Trifolium. 1984 (Trifolium) 167.

Check other web resources for Trifolium repens L. :

  • PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories
  • BONAP North American Plant Atlas of the Biota of North America Program:
  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • AVH: Australia's Virtual Herbarium
  • SIBIS: South African National Biodiversity Institute's (SANBI) Integrated Biodiversity System
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • ILDIS: International Legume Database & Information Service
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.