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Taxon: Pyrus communis L.

 
Genus: Pyrus
Section: Pyrus
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Amygdaloideae
Tribe: Maleae
Subtribe: Malinae
Nomen number: 30474
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:479, 2:1200. 1753
Link to protologue: https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/358498
Comment: probably of hybrid origin
Typification: View in Linnean Typification Project
Name Verified on: 07-Jul-2011 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 1881 (1010 active, 724 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Human food: beverage base; fruit
  • Materials:
  • Medicines:
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Asia-Temperate
    • WESTERN ASIA: Cyprus, Turkey
    • CAUCASUS: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russian Federation, [Dagestan] Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia [Ciscaucasia]
    • MIDDLE ASIA: Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan

    Europe
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation-European part, [European part] Ukraine (incl. Krym)
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Italy (incl. Sardinia, Sicily), Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France, Portugal, Spain


    Cultivated (widely cult.)

    Naturalized (widely natzd.)

    Other (probable origin Eurasia)

References:

  1. Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource). URL: http://www.agroatlas.ru/en/content/cultural/Pyrus_communis_K/ target='_blank'
  2. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  3. Boutelje, J. B. 1980. Encyclopedia of world timbers, names and technical literature
  4. Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson. 1998. Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning
  5. Davis, P. H., ed. 1965-1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  6. Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs
  7. Encke, F. et al. 1984. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage
  8. Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  9. Ferradini, N. et al. 2017. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of ancient Italian landraces of pear. Front. Plant Sci. 8:751. Pages 1-13.
  10. Fischer, M. 2009. Pear breeding. Breeding plantation tree crops: temperate species 135-160.
  11. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Pyrus+communis&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  12. Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6
  13. Kimura, T. et al. 2002. Identification of Asian pear varieties by SSR analysis. Breed. Sci. 52:115-121.
  14. Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934-1964. Flora SSSR.
  15. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  16. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2
  17. Matthew, K. M. 1983. The flora of the Tamilnadu Carnatic.
  18. Meikle, R. D. 1977-1985. Flora of Cyprus.
  19. Ohwi, J. 1965. Flora of Japan (Engl. ed.).
  20. Pan, Z. et al. 2002. Genetic diversity of cultivated resources of pear in North China. Acta Hort. 587:187-194.
  21. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  22. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  23. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants
  24. Reichel, S. 1998. pers. comm. Note: re. German common names
  25. Teng, Y.-W. et al. 2001. Genetic relationships of pear cultivars in Xinjiang, China, as measured by RAPD markers. J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 76:771-779.
  26. Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest. 1966-. Flora of Iraq.
  27. Tuz, A. S. 1972. K voprosu klassifikatsii roda Pyrus L. (Up-to-date systematics of the genus Pyrus L.). Trudy Prikl. Bot. 46:82.
  28. Walker, E. 1976. Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu Islands.
  29. Westwood, M. N. & H. O. Bjornstad. 1971. Some fruit characteristics of interspecific hybrids and extent of self-sterility in Pyrus. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 98:22-24.
  30. Wolko, L. et al. 2010. Genetic diversity of European pear cultivars (Pyrus communis L.) and wild pear (Pyrus pyraster (L>) Burgsd.) inferred from microsatellite markers analysis. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 57:801-806.
  31. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994-. Flora of China (English edition). Note: = Pyrus communis var. sativa
  32. Zheng, X. et al. 2014. Phylogeny and evolutionary histories of Pyrus L. revealed by phylogenetic trees and networks based on data from multiple DNA sequences. Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 80:54-65.

Check other web resources for Pyrus communis L. :

  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Images:

  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?30474. Accessed 14 November 2019.