Taxon: Pyrus communis L.

Genus: Pyrus
    Section: Pyrus
Family: Rosaceae
  Subfamily: Amygdaloideae
      Tribe: Maleae
        Subtribe: Malinae
Nomen number: 30474
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:479, 2:1200. 1753
Comment: probably of hybrid origin
Name Verified on: 07-Jul-2011 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 07-Jul-2011
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Corvallis (COR)
Accessions: 1822 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Human food: beverage base (fide Food Feed Crops US)
  • Human food: fruit (fide Food Feed Crops US)
  • Materials: wood (timber fide Ency WTimber)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (fide Cooper & Johnson ed2)

Distributional Range:


    . probable origin Eurasia


  • Asia-Temperate

    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Dagestan; Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia - Ciscaucasia
    • Middle Asia: Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Uzbekistan
    • Western Asia: Cyprus; Turkey
  • Europe

    • East Europe: Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation-European part - European part; Ukraine
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Liechtenstein; Luxembourg; Netherlands; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece; Italy; Macedonia; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Portugal; Spain

  • Naturalized:

    . widely natzd.


    . widely cult.


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  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin). 2009 (Vara kulturvaxt namn)
  • Boutelje, J. B. Encyclopedia of world timbers, names and technical literature. 1980 (Ency WTimber)
  • Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning. 1998 (Cooper & Johnson ed2)
  • Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. 1965-1988 (F Turk)
  • Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  • Encke, F. et al. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage. 1984 (Zander ed13)
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource). (EuroMed Plantbase)
  • Fischer, M. 2009. Pear breeding (Breed Pl Tree Crops) 135-160.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Hanelt, P., ed. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6. 2001 (Mansf Ency)
  • Kimura, T. et al. 2002. Identification of Asian pear varieties by SSR analysis Breed. Sci. 52:115-121.
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. Flora SSSR. 1934-1964 (F USSR)
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. 1976 (Hortus 3)
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  • Matthew, K. M. The flora of the Tamilnadu Carnatic. 1983 (F TamilC)
  • Meikle, R. D. Flora of Cyprus. 1977-1985 (F Cyprus)
  • Ohwi, J. Flora of Japan (Engl. ed.). 1965 (F JapanOhwi)
  • Pan, Z. et al. 2002. Genetic diversity of cultivated resources of pear in North China Acta Hort. 587:187-194.
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  • Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  • Reichel, S. 1998. pers. comm. (pers. comm.)
  • Teng, Y.-W. et al. 2001. Genetic relationships of pear cultivars in Xinjiang, China, as measured by RAPD markers J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 76:771-779.
  • Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest Flora of Iraq. 1966- (F Iraq)
  • Tuz, A. S. 1972. K voprosu klassifikatsii roda Pyrus L. (Up-to-date systematics of the genus Pyrus L.) Trudy Prikl. Bot. 46:82.
  • Walker, E. Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu Islands. 1976 (F Okin)
  • Westwood, M. N. & H. O. Bjornstad 1971. Some fruit characteristics of interspecific hybrids and extent of self-sterility in Pyrus Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 98:22-24.
  • Westwood, M. N. & H. O. Bjornstad 1971. Some fruit characteristics of interspecific hybrids and extent of self-sterility in Pyrus Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 98:22-24.
  • Wiersema, J. H. & B. León World economic plants: a standard reference (on-line edition) [medicinal plants only]. (World Econ Pl Med)
  • Wolko, L. et al. 2010. Genetic diversity of European pear cultivars (Pyrus communis L.) and wild pear (Pyrus pyraster (L>) Burgsd.) inferred from microsatellite markers analysis Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 57:801-806.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). 1994- (F ChinaEng)
  • Zheng, X. et al. 2014. Phylogeny and evolutionary histories of Pyrus L. revealed by phylogenetic trees and networks based on data from multiple DNA sequences Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 80:54-65.


Check other web resources for Pyrus communis L. :


  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image