Taxon: Trifolium medium L.

Genus: Trifolium
  Subgenus: Trifolium
    Section: Trifolium
Family: Fabaceae (alt.Leguminosae)
  Subfamily: Faboideae
      Tribe: Trifolieae
Nomen number: 310362
Place of publication: Amoen. acad. 4:105. 1759
Name Verified on: 23-Mar-2007 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 25-Jun-2012
Species priority site is: Western Regional PI Station (W6)
Accessions: 107 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: erosion control (fide Leg WorldEc)
  • Animal food: fodder (grazing, hay fide Leg WorldEc)
  • Animal food: forage (grazing, hay fide Leg WorldEc)
  • Gene sources: potential for growth habit in red clover (as a source of "perenniality" fide Can J Pl Sc 82:395. 2002)
  • Gene sources: potential for pest resistance in red clover (fide Genet Res Crop Evol 44:439-445. 1997)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of red clover (based on crossing barriers with tetraploid Trifolium pratense fide Hereditas 108:267. 1988)

Distributional Range:


  • Africa

    • Northern Africa: Egypt
  • Asia-Temperate

    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia - Ciscaucasia
    • Siberia: Russian Federation-Western Siberia - Western Siberia
    • Western Asia: Iran; Turkey
  • Europe

    • Eastern Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation-European part - European part; Ukraine
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Czechoslovakia; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Switzerland
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Finland; Ireland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bulgaria; Former Yugoslavia; Greece; Italy; Romania
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Portugal; Spain


  • Abberton, M. T. 2007. Interspecific hybridization in the genus Trifolium Pl. Breed. (New York) 126:337-342.
  • Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource). (AgroAtlas)
  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin). 2009 (Vara kulturvaxt namn)
  • Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. 1965-1988 (F Turk)
  • Duke, J. A. Handbook of legumes of world economic importance. 1981 (Leg WorldEc)
  • Ellison, N. W. et al. 2006. Molecular phylogenetics of the clover genus (Trifolium - Leguminosae) Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 39:688-705.
  • Ellison, N. W. et al. 2006. Molecular phylogenetics of the clover genus (Trifolium - Leguminosae) Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 39:688-705.
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource). (EuroMed Plantbase)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Gillett, J. M. & N. L. Taylor (M. Collins ed.) The world of clovers. 2001 (Clovers) 230.
  • Hanelt, P., ed. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6. 2001 (Mansf Ency)
  • Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS) Australian plant common name database (on-line resource). (Aust Pl Common Names)
  • Isobe, S. et al. 2002. Breeding potential of the backcross progenies of a hybrid between Trifolium medium × T. pratense to T. pratense Canad. J. Pl. Sci. 82:395-399.
  • Kouame, C. N. et al. 1997. Response to root-knot nematodes of a germplasm collection of red clover and related species Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 44:439-445.
  • Lamont, E.-J. et al. Chapter 4. Clovers (Trifolium L.) (Pl Genet Res Leg Med) 79-98.
  • Merker, A. 1984. Hybrids between Trifolium medium and Trifolium pratense Hereditas (Beijing) 101:267-268.
  • Merker, A. 1984. Hybrids between Trifolium medium and Trifolium pratense Hereditas (Beijing) 101:267-268.
  • Pignatti, S. Flora d'Italia. 1982 (F Ital)
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  • Rechinger, K. H., ed. Flora iranica. 1963- (F Iran)
  • Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  • Smythies, B. E. Flora of Spain and the Balearic Islands: checklist of vascular plants. Englera 3:1-882. 1984-1986 (L Spain)
  • Zohary, M. & D. Heller 1984. The genus Trifolium. 1984 (Trifolium) 370.

Check other web resources for Trifolium medium L. :

  • ILDIS: International Legume Database & Information Service
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.


  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image