Taxon: Echinochloa esculenta (A. Braun) H. Scholz

Genus: Echinochloa
Family: Poaceae (alt.Gramineae)
Subfamily: Panicoideae
Tribe: Paniceae
Subtribe: Boivinellinae
Nomen number: 317845
Place of publication: Taxon 41:523. 1992
Link to protologue:
Comment: [or E. crus-galli Esculenta Group]
Name Verified on: 01-Dec-1992 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 24-Jan-2017
Species priority site is: North Central Regional PI Station (NC7)
Accessions: 4 in National Plant Germplasm System


Common names:

  • Japanese barnyard millet  (Source: Taxon) - English
  • Japanese millet  (Source: World Econ Pl) - English
  • white millet  (Source: BSBI) - English
  • millet Japonais  (Source: Dict Rehm) - French
  • japanische Hirse  (Source: Dict Rehm) - German
  • japanische Hühnerhirse  (Source: Zander ed17) - German
  • giavone miglio giapponese  (Source: Mult Glossary Crops) - Italian
  • hie  (Source: Grass Japan) - Japanese Rōmaji
  • capim-arroz  (Source: pers. comm.) - Portuguese (Brazil)
  • mijo japonés  (Source: Dict Rehm) - Spanish
  • japansk hönshirs  (Source: Kulturvaxtdatabas) - Swedish
  • zi sui bai  (Source: F ChinaEng) - Transcribed Chinese

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: soil improver ()
  • Human food: cereal (as E. crus-galli subsp. utilis)
  • Animal food: fodder (cultivated in Asia and "considered superior to rice and oat straw")
  • Animal food: forage (for hay or grown for grazing in Australia, China and the U.S.A.)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (photosensitivity, as Echinochloa utilis)

Distributional Range:


    • Africa

    • CHINA: China
    • EASTERN ASIA: Japan

    Northern America
    • North America

    Southern America
    • South America


  1. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource on 2012 (Kulturvaxtdatabas)
  2. Botanical Society of the British Isles BSBI taxon database (on-line resource). (BSBI)
  3. Erhardt, W. et al. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 17. Auflage. 2002 (Zander ed17)
  4. FNA Editorial Committee Flora of North America. (F NAmer)
  5. Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. (pers. comm.)
  6. International Seed Testing Association A Multilingual Glossary of Common Plant-Names 1. Field crops, grasses and vegetables, ed. 2. (Mult Glossary Crops)
  7. Ishikawa, G. et al. 2013. Molecular characterization of spontaneous and induced mutations in the three homoelogous waxy genes of Japanese barnyard millet [Echinochloa esculenta (A. Braun) H. Scholz] Molec. Breed. 31:69-78.
  8. Koyama, T. Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions. 1987 (Grass Japan)
  9. Lazarides, M. & B. Hince CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia. 1993 (Econ Pl Aust)
  10. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  11. Morrone, O. et al. 2012. Phylogeny of the Paniceae (Poaceae: Panicoideae): integrating plastid DNA sequences and morphology into a new classification (Cladistics) 28:333-356.
  12. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  13. Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  14. Scholz, H. 1992. Echinochloa esculenta, comb. nov. - the correct name of the Japanese barnyard millet (Gramineae) (Taxon) 41:522-523.
  15. Sood, S. et al. 2015. Barnyard millet - a potential food and feed crop of future Pl. Breed. (New York) 134:135-147.
  16. University of California Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program UC SAREP on-line cover crop database (on-line resource). (Cover Crop Database)
  17. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). (F ChinaEng)
  18. Yabuno, T. 1987. Japanese barnyard millet (Echinochloa utilis, Poaceae) in Japan Econ. Bot. 41:484-493.
  19. Yabuno, T. 1962. Cytotaxonomic studies on the two cultivated species and the wild relatives in the genus Echinochloa (Cytologia) 27:296-305.
  20. Zuloaga, F. O. et al. 2003. Catalogue of New World grasses (Poaceae): III. Subfamilies Panicoideae, Aristidoideae, Arundinoideae, and Danthonioideae Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 46:220.

Check other web resources for Echinochloa esculenta (A. Braun) H. Scholz :

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: Accessed 17 June 2018.