Taxon: Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.

 
Genus: Silybum
Family: Asteraceae (alt.Compositae)
  Subfamily: Carduoideae
      Tribe: Cardueae
        Subtribe: Carduinae
Nomen number: 33952
Place of publication: Fruct. sem. pl. 2:378. 1791
Name Verified on: 30-Sep-1992 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 09-May-2011
Species priority site is:
Accessions: 2 in National Plant Germplasm System

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring (fide Ency CNatIn)
  • Bee plants: honey production (fide F Int Apico)
  • Medicines: source of silymarin (fide Import Medicinal Pl; CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (fide Kingsbury; Cooper & Johnson ed2)
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant (fide Econ Pl Aust; Invasive Pl Spec)

Distributional Range:

    Native:

  • Africa

    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Madeira Islands
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Egypt; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia
  • Asia-Temperate

    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia - Ciscaucasia
    • Middle Asia: Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
    • Siberia: Russian Federation - Kurgan
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan; Cyprus; Egypt - Sinai; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical

    • Indian Subcontinent: India - Himachal Pradesh, - Jammu and Kashmir, - Uttar Pradesh; Pakistan
  • Europe

    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece; Italy; Macedonia; Montenegro
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Portugal; Spain

  • Naturalized:

  • Africa

    • East Tropical Africa: Kenya
    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Azores; Spain - Canary Islands
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Eritrea; Ethiopia
    • Southern Africa: South Africa - Eastern Cape, - Gauteng
  • Australasia

    • Australia: Australia
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • Europe

    • East Europe: Belarus; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation-European part - European part; Ukraine
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Ireland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Southeastern Europe: Romania; Slovenia
  • Northern America

    • Eastern Canada: Canada - Quebec, - Nova Scotia, - Ontario, - New Brunswick
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, - Indiana, - Michigan, - New Hampshire, - New Jersey, - New York, - Ohio, - Pennsylvania, - Vermont, - West Virginia
    • Northern Mexico: Mexico - Baja Norte
    • Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Oregon, - Washington
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - New Mexico, - Texas
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, - Arkansas, - Louisiana, - Mississippi, - North Carolina, - Tennessee, - Virginia
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona, - California, - Nevada
    • Western Canada: Canada - Saskatchewan, - Alberta, - British Columbia
  • Southern America

    • Brazil: Brazil - Parana, - Rio Grande do Sul, - Santa Catarina
    • Southern South America: Argentina; Chile; Uruguay
    • Western South America: Ecuador; Peru

  • Cultivated:

    . also cult.

    Adventive:

  • Europe

    • East Europe: Estonia; Latvia
    • Middle Europe: Czech Republic; Germany; Netherlands
    • Southeastern Europe: Serbia

References:

  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin). 2009 (Vara kulturvaxt namn)
  • Allan, H. H. B. et al. Flora of New Zealand. 1961- (F NZeal)
  • Bisset, N. G., ed. Herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals. A handbook for practice on a scientific basis. 1994 (Herbal Drugs)
  • Blumenthal, M., ed. The complete German Commission E monographs: therapeutic guide to herbal medicines. 1998 (German CommE Monog)
  • Boulos, L. Flora of Egypt. 1999- (F Egypt)
  • Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45. 1993 (L Peru)
  • Chopra, D. & D. Simon The Chopra Center herbal handbook: forty natural prescriptions for perfect health. 2000 (Chopra Herbal)
  • Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning. 1998 (Cooper & Johnson ed2)
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. 1970 (F Tex)
  • Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. 1965-1988 (F Turk)
  • Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  • Erhardt, W. et al. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen. 2008 (Zander Ency)
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource). (EuroMed Plantbase)
  • Farnsworth, N. R. & D. D. Soejarto Global importance of medicinal plants (unpublished draft manuscript rev. 23, 1988) (Import Medicinal Pl)
  • FNA Editorial Committee Flora of North America. 1993- (F NAmer)
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  • Foster, S. & C. Hobbs A field guide to Western medicinal plants and herbs. 2002 (W Med Pl Herbs)
  • Foster, S. & J. A. Duke A field guide to medicinal plants: Eastern/Central North America, 2nd ed. 2000 (EastC Med Pl)
  • Foster, S. & V. E. Tyler Tyler's honest herbal: a sensible guide to the use of herbs and related remedies, ed. 4. 1999 (Tyler Herbal)
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  • Hanelt, P., ed. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6. 2001 (Mansf Ency)
  • Hedberg, I. & S. Edwards Flora of Ethiopia. 1989- (and Eritrea. 2000) (F Ethiop)
  • Hnatiuk, R. J. Census of Australian vascular plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series No. 11. 1990 (L Aust)
  • Holm, L. et al. A geographical atlas of world weeds. 1979 (Atlas WWeed)
  • Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): plant threats to Pacific ecosystems (on-line resource). (Pacif I Ecosyst Risk)
  • Instituto de Botánica Darwinion Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares. 2008 (F ConoSur)
  • Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS) Australian plant common name database (on-line resource). (Aust Pl Common Names)
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75. 1999 (L Ecuador)
  • Janick, J. & J. Simon, eds. Advances in new crops. 1990 (Adv New Crops)
  • Kartesz, J. T. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 1994 (L US Can ed2)
  • Kingsbury, J. M. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. 1964 (Kingsbury)
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. Flora SSSR. 1934-1964 (F USSR)
  • Krasnoborov, I. M., ed. Flora of Siberia (English translation). 2000- (F Siberia)
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  • Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2. 1996 (Ency CNatIn)
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  • Ortega-Sada, J. L. Flora de interes apicola y polinizacion de cultivos. 1987 (F Int Apico)
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  • Seed Regulatory and Testing Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S.D.A. State noxious-weed seed requirements recognized in the administration of the Federal Seed Act (updated annually). (State Noxweed Seed)
  • Sharma, B. D. et al., eds. Flora of India. 1993- (F India)
  • Stewart, R. An annotated catalogue of the vascular plants of West Pakistan and Kashmir. 1972 (L Pak)
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  • Wiggins, I. L. Flora of Baja California. 1980 (F Baja)
  • Zohary, M. & N. Feinbrun-Dothan Flora palaestina. 1966- (F Palest)

Synonyms:

Check other web resources for Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. :