Taxon: Symphytum asperum Lepech.

Genus: Symphytum
Family: Boraginaceae
  Subfamily: Boraginoideae
Nomen number: 36019
Place of publication: Nova Acta Acad. Sci. Imp. Petrop. Hist. Acad. 14:442. 1805
Name Verified on: 03-May-1995 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 09-May-2011
Species priority site is: North Central Regional PI Station (NC7)
Accessions: 3 in National Plant Germplasm System

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental (fide Dict Gard)
  • Environmental: soil improver (fide Dict Gard)
  • Animal food: fodder (for pigs & rabbits fide F USSR, formerly much used in Europe)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (fide Cooper & Johnson ed2)
  • Weed: (fide Invaders Database)

Distributional Range:


  • Asia-Temperate

    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Dagestan; Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia - Ciscaucasia
    • Western Asia: Iran; Turkey

  • Cultivated:

    . also cult.


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  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin). 2009 (Vara kulturvaxt namn)
  • Bennett, M. Pulmonarias and the Borage family. 2003 (Pulmonaria) 177.
  • Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning. 1998 (Cooper & Johnson ed2)
  • Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. 1965-1988 (F Turk)
  • Erhardt, W. et al. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen. 2008 (Zander Ency)
  • Grellin, J. K. & J. Philpott A reference guide to medicinal plants. 1990 (RefGuide MedPl)
  • Greuter, W. et al., eds. Med-Checklist. 1984- (L Medit)
  • Gviniashvili, T. N. 1976. Kavkazskie predstaviteli roda Symphytum L. (Boraginaceae Juss.) 82.
  • Huxley, A., ed. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 1992 (Dict Gard)
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. Flora SSSR. 1934-1964 (F USSR)
  • Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2. 1996 (Ency CNatIn)
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Munro, D. B. Canadian poisonous plants information system (on-line resource). (Can Poison Pl)
  • Peirce, A. The American Pharmaceutical Association practical guide to natural medicines. 1999 (Pract Guide Nat Med)
  • Rechinger, K. H., ed. Flora iranica. 1963- (F Iran)
  • Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. 1964-1980 (F Eur)
  • USDA/ARS INVADERS database system. The University of Montana (on-line resource). (Invaders Database)
  • Wickerham, L. J. 1969. A revision of Symphytum in Turkey and adjacent areas Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 29:162-163.
  • Wiersema, J. H. & B. León World economic plants: a standard reference (on-line edition) [medicinal plants only]. (World Econ Pl Med)


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