Taxon: Symphytum officinale L.

 
Genus: Symphytum
Family: Boraginaceae
  Subfamily: Boraginoideae
Nomen number: 36020
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:136. 1753
Name Verified on: 02-Mar-1995 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 02-Mar-1995
Species priority site is: North Central Regional PI Station (NC7)
Accessions: 4 in National Plant Germplasm System

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental (fide Pulmonaria 182.)
  • Environmental: soil improver (a green manure valued for cultivating potatoes and tomatoes in gardens fide Dict Gard)
  • Animal food: forage (fide F ChinaEng)
  • Materials: gum/resin (fide Ency CNatIn)
  • Materials: lipids (fide Ency CNatIn)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (fide Cooper & Johnson ed2; Lampe & McCann; H. Riedl, pers. comm. 1996, contains carcinogens)

Distributional Range:

    Native:

  • Asia-Temperate

    • Caucasus: Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia - Ciscaucasia
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan
    • Siberia: Russian Federation-Western Siberia - Western Siberia
    • Western Asia: Turkey
  • Europe

    • Eastern Europe: Belarus; Moldova; Russian Federation-European part - European part; Ukraine
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    • Northern Europe: United Kingdom
    • Southeastern Europe: Bulgaria; Croatia; Italy; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Spain

  • Cultivated:

    . also cult.

References:

  • Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource). (AgroAtlas)
  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin). 2009 (Vara kulturvaxt namn)
  • Bennett, M. Pulmonarias and the Borage family. 2003 (Pulmonaria) 181.
  • Bisset, N. G., ed. Herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals. A handbook for practice on a scientific basis. 1994 (Herbal Drugs)
  • Blumenthal, M., ed. The complete German Commission E monographs: therapeutic guide to herbal medicines. 1998 (German CommE Monog)
  • Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning. 1998 (Cooper & Johnson ed2)
  • Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. 1965-1988 (F Turk)
  • Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  • Erhardt, W. et al. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen. 2008 (Zander Ency)
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource). (EuroMed Plantbase)
  • Foster, S. & C. Hobbs A field guide to Western medicinal plants and herbs. 2002 (W Med Pl Herbs)
  • Foster, S. & J. A. Duke A field guide to medicinal plants: Eastern/Central North America, 2nd ed. 2000 (EastC Med Pl)
  • Foster, S. & V. E. Tyler Tyler's honest herbal: a sensible guide to the use of herbs and related remedies, ed. 4. 1999 (Tyler Herbal)
  • Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, ed. 2. 1991 (Glea Cron ed2)
  • Grellin, J. K. & J. Philpott A reference guide to medicinal plants. 1990 (RefGuide MedPl)
  • Greuter, W. et al., eds. Med-Checklist. 1984- (L Medit)
  • Gviniashvili, T. N. 1976. Kavkazskie predstaviteli roda Symphytum L. (Boraginaceae Juss.) 122-125.
  • Huxley, A., ed. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 1992 (Dict Gard)
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. Flora SSSR. 1934-1964 (F USSR)
  • Lampe, K. F. & M. A. McCann AMA handbook of poisonous and injurious plants. 1985 (Lampe & McCann)
  • Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2. 1996 (Ency CNatIn)
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. 1976 (Hortus 3)
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Moerman, D. Native American ethnobotany, ed. 5. 1998 (Nat Amer Ethnobot)
  • Munro, D. B. Canadian poisonous plants information system (on-line resource). (Can Poison Pl)
  • Peirce, A. The American Pharmaceutical Association practical guide to natural medicines. 1999 (Pract Guide Nat Med)
  • Pignatti, S. Flora d'Italia. 1982 (F Ital)
  • Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  • Rostliny, L. Katalog Léçivých Rostlin & Malý Herbá&r Léçivých Rostlin. 1984-1985 (Kat Lev Ros)
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. 1964-1980 (F Eur)
  • Van Wyk, B.-E. & M. Wink Medicinal plants of the world. 2004 (Med Pl World)
  • Wichens, G. E. 1969. A revision of Symphytum in Turkey and adjacent areas Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 29:158.
  • Wiersema, J. H. & B. León World economic plants: a standard reference (on-line edition) [medicinal plants only]. (World Econ Pl Med)
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). 1994- (F ChinaEng)

Check other web resources for Symphytum officinale L. :

Images:

  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image