Taxon: Tilia ×europaea L.

Genus: Tilia
Family: Malvaceae
Subfamily: Tilioideae
Nomen number: 36679
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:514. 1753
Link to protologue:
Comment: [= T. cordata? × T. platyphyllos]
Name Verified on: 22-Sep-1999 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 13-Mar-2017
Species priority site is: National Arboretum (NA)
Accessions: 0 in National Plant Germplasm System

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental (fide Hortus 3)
  • Environmental: shade/shelter (fide Krussmann)
  • Human food: beverage base (fide Cornucopia)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide Herbs Commerce ed2, as T. ×vulgaris)

Distributional Range:


  • Europe

    • Eastern Europe: Ukraine
    • Middle Europe: Austria ; Czechoslovakia ; Germany ; Hungary ; Poland ; Switzerland
    • Northern Europe: Sweden
    • Southeastern Europe: Greece ; Italy ; Romania
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Spain

  • Cultivated


  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource on 2012 (Kulturvaxtdatabas)
  • Czerepanov, S. K. Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (the former USSR). 1995 (L USSR)
  • Facciola, S. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants. 1990 (Cornucopia)
  • Huxley, A., ed. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 1992 (Dict Gard)
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. Flora SSSR. (F USSR)
  • Krüssmann, G. Manual of cultivated broad-leaved trees and shrubs (English translation of Handbuch der Laubgehölze. 1976). 1984 (Krussmann)
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. (Hortus 3)
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  • Meyer, F. G. et al. A catalog of cultivated woody plants of the southeastern United States. 1994 (L CultWPl SE US)
  • Personal Care Products Council International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI)
  • Pigott, C. D. & B. Francis 1995. Nomenclature of the European species of Tilia. I. Tilia europaea L. Kew Bull. 50:135-139.
  • Rehder, A. Bibliography of cultivated trees and shrubs. (Rehder)
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. (F Eur)
  • Walters, S. M. et al., eds. European garden flora. (Eur Gard F)


Check other web resources for Tilia ×europaea L. :

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ICRA: International Cultivar Registration Authority (on-line resource). for Tilia x europaea cultivars
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.