Taxon: Trifolium arvense L.

Genus: Trifolium
  Subgenus: Trifolium
    Section: Trifolium
Family: Fabaceae (alt.Leguminosae)
  Subfamily: Faboideae
      Tribe: Trifolieae
Nomen number: 40173
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:769. 1753
Name Verified on: 23-Mar-2007 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 25-Jun-2012
Species priority site is: Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA (S9)
Accessions: 91 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Animal food: forage (fide Leg NEurasia; Invasive Pl Spec)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of red clover (based on affinities to perennial Trifolium pratense fide Mol Phylogenet Evol 39:696-697. 2006)
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant (fide Geigy Weed Tables. 1968; Invasive Pl Spec)

Distributional Range:


  • Africa

    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Djibouti; Ethiopia; Sudan
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Egypt; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia
  • Asia-Temperate

    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Dagestan; Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia - Ciscaucasia
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Turkmenistan
    • Siberia: Russian Federation-Western Siberia - Western Siberia
    • Western Asia: Cyprus; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
  • Europe

    • East Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation-European part - European part; Ukraine
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czechoslovakia; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Switzerland
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Finland; Ireland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bulgaria; Former Yugoslavia; Greece; Italy; Romania
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Portugal; Spain

  • Naturalized:

  • Africa

    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Azores
  • Australasia

    • Australia: Australia
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • Northern America

    • : United States
  • Pacific

    • North-Central Pacific: United States - Hawaii


  • Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource). (AgroAtlas)
  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin). 2009 (Vara kulturvaxt namn)
  • Ali, S. I. & S. M. H. Jafri, eds. Flora of Libya. 1976- (F Libya)
  • Botanical Society of the British Isles BSBI taxon database (on-line resource). (BSBI)
  • CIBA-GEIGY, Basel, Switzerland The CIBA-GEIGY Weed Tables. 1974 (Weed TabCIBA)
  • Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. 1965-1988 (F Turk)
  • Demilly, D. et al. Liste alphabétique des principales espèces de plantes cultivées et de mauvaises herbes. Noms latins et noms français, ed. 7. 2001 (L Noms French ed7)
  • Ellison, N. W. et al. 2006. Molecular phylogenetics of the clover genus (Trifolium - Leguminosae) Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 39:688-705.
  • Ellison, N. W. et al. 2006. Molecular phylogenetics of the clover genus (Trifolium - Leguminosae) Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 39:688-705.
  • Encke, F. et al. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage. 1984 (Zander ed13)
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  • Greuter, W. et al., eds. Med-Checklist. 1984- (L Medit)
  • Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. (pers. comm.)
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  • Iwatsuki, K. et al. Flora of Japan. 1993- (F Japan)
  • Izquierdo Z., I. et al., eds. Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias: hongos, plantas y animales terrestres. 2004 (L Canarias)
  • Lamont, E.-J. et al. Chapter 4. Clovers (Trifolium L.) (Pl Genet Res Leg Med) 79-88.
  • Lock, J. M. Legumes of Africa: a checklist. 1989 (Leg Africa)
  • Meikle, R. D. Flora of Cyprus. 1977-1985 (F Cyprus)
  • Pignatti, S. Flora d'Italia. 1982 (F Ital)
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  • Pottier-Alapetite, G. Flore de la Tunisie: Angiospermes-Dicotyledones. 1979-1981 (F Tunis)
  • Randall, R. P. The introduced flora of Australia and its weed status. 2007 (Weed CRCAustralia)
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  • Silva, L. et al. Listagem da fauna e flora terrestres dos Açores. Lista des plantas vasculares (Pteridophyta e Spermatophyta). 2005 (L Azores)
  • Smythies, B. E. Flora of Spain and the Balearic Islands: checklist of vascular plants. Englera 3:1-882. 1984-1986 (L Spain)
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  • Thulin, M. Leguminosae of Ethiopia. Opera Bot. 68:1-223. 1983 (Leg Ethiop)
  • Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest Flora of Iraq. 1966- (F Iraq)
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. 1964-1980 (F Eur)
  • Weber, E. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. 2003 (Invasive Pl Spec)
  • Yakovlev, G. P. et al. Legumes of Northern Eurasia. 1996 (Leg NEurasia)
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  • Zohary, M. & N. Feinbrun-Dothan Flora palaestina. 1966- (F Palest)

Check other web resources for Trifolium arvense L. :

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories
  • BONAP North American Plant Atlas of the Biota of North America Program:
  • AVH: Australia's Virtual Herbarium
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • ILDIS: International Legume Database & Information Service
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.