Taxon: Papaver somniferum L.

Genus: Papaver
    Section: Papaver
Family: Papaveraceae
  Subfamily: Papaveroideae
      Tribe: Papavereae
Nomen number: 406377
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:508. 1753
Name Verified on: 30-Aug-1996 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 31-Dec-2001
Species priority site is: Western Regional PI Station (W6)
Accessions: 125 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Medicines: folklore (fide CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant (fide AOSA Hb 25; Global Comp Weeds)

Distributional Range:


  • Africa

    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia
  • Asia-Temperate

    • Western Asia: Cyprus
  • Europe

    • Southeastern Europe: Greece - Crete; Italy
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Portugal; Spain

  • Naturalized:

    . sometimes natzd.


    . widely cult.


  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin). 2009 (Vara kulturvaxt namn)
  • Bensky, D., A. Gamble, & T. J. Kaptchuk Chinese herbal medicine: Materia medica, rev. ed. 1993 (Chin Herb Med)
  • Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  • Erhardt, W. et al. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 16. Auflage. 2000 (Zander ed16)
  • FNA Editorial Committee Flora of North America. 1993- (F NAmer)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Greuter, W. et al., eds. Med-Checklist. 1984- (L Medit)
  • Grey-Wilson, C. Poppies: The poppy family in the wild and in cultivation. 1993 (Poppies) 169.
  • Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS) Australian plant common name database (on-line resource). (Aust Pl Common Names)
  • International Seed Testing Association A Multilingual Glossary of Common Plant-Names 1. Field crops, grasses and vegetables, ed. 2. 1982 (Mult Glossary Crops)
  • Izquierdo Z., I. et al., eds. Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias: hongos, plantas y animales terrestres. 2004 (L Canarias)
  • Jalas, J. & J. Suominen Atlas florae europaeae. 1972- (Atlas Eur)
  • Janick, J. & J. Simon, eds. Advances in new crops. 1990 (Adv New Crops)
  • Jonsell, B., ed. Flora nordica. 2000 (F Nordica)
  • Kadereit, J. W. 1986. Papaver somniferum L. (Papaveraceae): a triploid hybrid? Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 106:221-244.
  • Kadereit, J. W. 1986. A revision of Papaver L. sect. Papaver (Papaveraceae) Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 108:3-6.
  • Kadereit, J. W. 2011. Review of Papaveraceae data for World Economic Plants, ed. 2 (pers. comm.)
  • Keys, J. D. Chinese herbs: their botany, chemistry, and pharmacodynamics. 1976 (Chin Herbs)
  • Lee, Y. N. Flora of Korea. 1997 (F Korea)
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Migahid, A. M. Flora of Saudi Arabia, ed. 3. 1988-1990 (F Saudi ed3)
  • Moerman, D. Native American ethnobotany, ed. 5. 1998 (Nat Amer Ethnobot)
  • Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants (Kulturpflanze) 34:113.
  • Munro, D. B. Canadian poisonous plants information system (on-line resource). (Can Poison Pl)
  • National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical & Biological Products Colour atlas of Chinese traditional drugs, Vol 1. 1987 (Atlas Chin Drugs)
  • Ohwi, J. Flora of Japan (Engl. ed.). 1965 (F JapanOhwi)
  • Peirce, A. The American Pharmaceutical Association practical guide to natural medicines. 1999 (Pract Guide Nat Med)
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  • Randall, R. P. A global compendium of weeds. 2002 (Global Comp Weeds)
  • Silva, L. et al. Listagem da fauna e flora terrestres dos Açores. Lista des plantas vasculares (Pteridophyta e Spermatophyta). 2005 (L Azores)
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea, second edition. 1993 (F Eur ed2)
  • Van Wyk, B.-E. & M. Wink Medicinal plants of the world. 2004 (Med Pl World)
  • Wiersema, J. H. & B. León World economic plants: a standard reference (on-line edition) [medicinal plants only]. (World Econ Pl Med)
  • Wood, J. R. I. A handbook of the flora of Yemen. 1997 (F Yemen)
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). 1994- (F ChinaEng)

Check other web resources for Papaver somniferum L. :


  • Fruit: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seeds: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image