Taxon: Viola odorata L.

 
Genus: Viola
Family: Violaceae
  Subfamily: Violoideae
      Tribe: Violeae
Nomen number: 41733
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:934. 1753
Name Verified on: 13-Feb-2003 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 25-Feb-2004
Species priority site is:
Accessions: 53 in National Plant Germplasm System

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring (fide HerbSpices; Cornucopia)
  • Environmental: ornamental (fide Dict Gard; Hortus 3)
  • Materials: essential oils (from leaves used in perfumery fide Flower Oils)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)

Distributional Range:

    Native:

  • Africa

    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia
  • Asia-Temperate

    • Western Asia: Cyprus; Iran; Iraq; Lebanon; Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical

    • Indian Subcontinent: India - Jammu and Kashmir
  • Europe

    • East Europe: Belarus; Moldova; Russian Federation-European part - European part; Ukraine
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czechoslovakia; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Switzerland
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Ireland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bulgaria; Former Yugoslavia; Greece; Italy; Romania
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Portugal; Spain

  • Naturalized:

    . also natzd.

    Cultivated:

    . also cult.

References:

  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin). 2009 (Vara kulturvaxt namn)
  • Ali, S. I. & S. M. H. Jafri, eds. Flora of Libya. 1976- (F Libya)
  • Backer, C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen van den Brink, Jr. Flora of Java. 1963-1968 (F Java)
  • Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45. 1993 (L Peru)
  • Castroviejo, S. et al., eds. Flora iberica: plantas vasculares de la Peninsula Iberica e Islas Baleares. 1989- (F Iberica)
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae. 1959- (F China)
  • Correa, M. N. Flora patagonica. 1969- (F Patag)
  • Craker, L. E. & J. E. Simon, eds. Herbs, spices, and medicinal plants, 2 vols. 1986-1987 (HerbSpices)
  • Czerepanov, S. K. Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (the former USSR). 1995 (L USSR)
  • Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. 1965-1988 (F Turk)
  • Demilly, D. et al. Liste alphabétique des principales espèces de plantes cultivées et de mauvaises herbes. Noms latins et noms français, ed. 7. 2001 (L Noms French ed7)
  • Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  • Encke, F. et al. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage. 1984 (Zander ed13)
  • Facciola, S. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants. 1990 (Cornucopia)
  • Fennane, M. et al., eds. Flore pratique du Maroc. 1999- (F Prat Maroc)
  • Fernández Casado, A. 1984. Estudios sobre el género Viola L. en la península Ibérica I. Cariología (Fontqueria) 5:24.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • George, A. S., ed. Flora of Australia. 1980- (F Aust)
  • Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, ed. 2. 1991 (Glea Cron ed2)
  • Grellin, J. K. & J. Philpott A reference guide to medicinal plants. 1990 (RefGuide MedPl)
  • Hanelt, P., ed. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6. 2001 (Mansf Ency)
  • Hansen, A. & P. Sunding Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, ed. 4. Sommerfeltia vol. 17. 1993 (L Macar ed4)
  • Hickman, J. C., ed. The Jepson manual: higher plants of California. 1993 (F CalifJep)
  • Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 1992 (Dict Gard) 4:671.
  • Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS) Australian plant common name database (on-line resource). (Aust Pl Common Names)
  • Iwatsuki, K. et al. Flora of Japan. 1993- (F Japan)
  • Izquierdo Z., I. et al., eds. Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias: hongos, plantas y animales terrestres. 2004 (L Canarias)
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75. 1999 (L Ecuador)
  • Jahandiez, E. & R. Maire Catalogue des plantes du Maroc. 1931-1941 (L Maroc)
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. Flora SSSR. 1934-1964 (F USSR)
  • Laasimer, L. et al., eds. Flora of the Baltic countries; compendium of vascular plants. 1993- (F Baltic)
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. 1976 (Hortus 3)
  • Magee, D. W. & H. E. Ahles Flora of the Northeast. A manual of the vascular flora of New England and adjacent New York. 1999 (F NE US)
  • Marcussen, T. 2006. Allozymic variation in the widespread and cultivated Viola odorata (Violaceae) in western Eurasia Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 151:563-571.
  • Marcussen, T. et al. 2001. Viola hirta (Violaceae) and its relatives in Norway Nordic J. Bot. 21:6.
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  • Marticorena, C. & M. Quezada Catalogo de la flora vascular de Chile. 1985 (L Chile)
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Meikle, R. D. Flora of Cyprus. 1977-1985 (F Cyprus)
  • Mouterde, P. Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie. 1966- (F Liban)
  • Núñez Meléndez, E. Plantas medicinales de Puerto Rico: Folklore y fundamentos científicos. 1982 (Pl Med PR)
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. Flora of [West] Pakistan. 1970- (F Pak)
  • Ohio Flora Committee (E. L. Braun, T. S. Cooperrider, T. R. Fisher, J. J. Furlow) The vascular flora of Ohio. 1967- (F Ohio)
  • Orell, J. & A. M. Romo 1991. The genus Viola in the Balaeric Islands Butl. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat. 59:83.
  • Pajaujis Anonis, D. Flower oils and floral compounds in perfumery. 1993 (Flower Oils)
  • Pignatti, S. Flora d'Italia. 1982 (F Ital)
  • Pittier, H. F. et al. Catálogo de la flora venezolana. 1945-1947 (L Venez)
  • Pottier-Alapetite, G. Flore de la Tunisie: Angiospermes-Dicotyledones. 1979-1981 (F Tunis)
  • Press, J. R. & M. J. Short, eds. Flora of Madeira. 1994 (F Madeira)
  • Quézel, P. & S. Santa Nouvelle flore de l'Algerie. 1962-1963 (F Alger)
  • Rechinger, K. H., ed. Flora iranica. 1963- (F Iran)
  • Russell, N. H. 1965. Violets (Viola) of central and eastern United States: An introductory survey (Sida) 2:108.
  • Scoggan, H. J. The flora of Canada, 4 vol. 1978-1979 (F Canada)
  • Sharma, B. D. et al., eds. Flora of India. 1993- (F India)
  • Silva, L. et al. Listagem da fauna e flora terrestres dos Açores. Lista des plantas vasculares (Pteridophyta e Spermatophyta). 2005 (L Azores)
  • Smith, A. C. Flora vitiensis nova. 1979-1991 (F Viti)
  • Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyermark Flora of Guatemala. 1946-1976 (F Guat)
  • Steenis, C. G. G. J. van, ed. Flora malesiana. 1948- (F Males)
  • Tirtha, SadaShiva The Ayurveda encyclopedia: Natural secrets to healing, prevention, and longevity. 1998 (Ayurveda Ency)
  • Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest Flora of Iraq. 1966- (F Iraq)
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. 1964-1980 (F Eur)
  • Valdés, B. et al., eds. Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du nord du Maroc, incluant des clés d'identification. 2002 (L NMaroc)
  • Van Wyk, B.-E. & M. Wink Medicinal plants of the world. 2004 (Med Pl World)
  • Voss, E. Michigan flora. 1972- (F Mich)
  • Welsh, S. L. et al. A Utah flora. 1993 (F Utah ed2)
  • Wiersema, J. H. & B. León World economic plants: a standard reference (on-line edition) [medicinal plants only]. (World Econ Pl Med)
  • Woodson, R. E. & R. W. Schery, eds. Flora of Panama. 1943-1980 (F Panama)
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). 1994- (F ChinaEng)
  • Zohary, M. & N. Feinbrun-Dothan Flora palaestina. 1966- (F Palest)
  • Zuloaga, F. O. & O. Morrone, eds. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de la República Argentina. I. Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Angiospermae (Monocotyledonae), II. Dicotyledonae. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60, 74. 1996, 1999 (L Argent)

Synonyms:

Check other web resources for Viola odorata L. :

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • ABRS: Australian Biological Resources Study Flora of Australia online
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ICRA: International Cultivar Registration Authority (on-line resource). for Viola odorata cultivars
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.

Images:

  • Flower: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image