Taxon: Xanthium spinosum L.

 
Genus: Xanthium
Family: Asteraceae (alt.Compositae)
Nomen number: 42071
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:987. 1753
Name Verified on: 25-Mar-2012 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 25-Mar-2012
Species priority site is:
Accessions: 0 in National Plant Germplasm System

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (fide Kingsbury; Kellerman et al.; Pammel; Everist; Noxweed Aust)
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant (fide Interm Fl; Noxweed Aust; Invasive Pl Spec; Weeds SAfr 2001)

Distributional Range:

    Other:

    . exact native range in Americas obscure

    Native:

  • Southern America

    • Brazil: Brazil - Rio Grande do Sul, - Santa Catarina
    • Southern South America: Argentina; Chile; Paraguay; Uruguay
    • Western South America: Bolivia; Ecuador; Peru

  • Naturalized:

  • Africa

    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Azores; Spain - Canary Islands
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Eritrea; Ethiopia
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Egypt; Libya
    • South Tropical Africa: Zimbabwe
    • Southern Africa: Botswana; Lesotho; South Africa
    • Western Indian Ocean: Mauritius; Reunion
  • Asia-Temperate

    • Arabian Peninsula: Yemen
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia - Ciscaucasia
    • China: China - Beijing, - Henan
    • Eastern Asia: Japan - Honshu
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
    • Russian Far East: Russian Federation - Primorye
    • Siberia: Russian Federation - Altay, - Tyumen
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan; Egypt - Sinai; Iran; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical

    • Indian Subcontinent: India
    • Malesia: Papua New Guinea
  • Australasia

    • Australia: Australia
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • Europe

    • East Europe: Moldova; Russian Federation-European part - European part; Ukraine
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Hungary; Poland
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bulgaria; Italy
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Spain
  • Northern America

    • : Mexico
    • Eastern Canada: Canada - Quebec, - Ontario, - New Brunswick
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, - Iowa, - Kansas, - Missouri, - Nebraska
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, - Indiana, - Maine, - Massachusetts, - Michigan, - New Hampshire, - New Jersey, - New York, - Ohio, - Pennsylvania, - Rhode Island, - West Virginia
    • Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Colorado, - Idaho, - Montana, - Oregon, - Washington
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - New Mexico, - Texas
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, - Delaware, - Florida, - Georgia, - Kentucky, - Maryland, - Mississippi, - North Carolina, - South Carolina, - Tennessee
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - Arizona, - California, - Nevada, - Utah
    • Western Canada: Canada - Saskatchewan

References:

  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin). 2009 (Vara kulturvaxt namn)
  • Allan, H. H. B. et al. Flora of New Zealand. 1961- (F NZeal)
  • Bosser, J. M. et al., eds. Flores des Mascareignes. 1976- (F Mascar)
  • Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45. 1993 (L Peru)
  • Cronquist, A. et al. Intermountain flora. 1972- (Intermt F)
  • Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. 1965-1988 (F Turk)
  • Erhardt, W. et al. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen. 2008 (Zander Ency)
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource). (EuroMed Plantbase)
  • Everest, S. L. Poisonous plants of Australia. 1981 (Everist)
  • FNA Editorial Committee Flora of North America. 1993- (F NAmer)
  • Foreman, D. B. & N. G. Walsh Flora of Victoria. 1993- (F Victoria)
  • Forzza, R. C. et al., coord. Lista de espécies da flora do Brasil (on-line resource). (L Brasil Online)
  • Germishuizen, G. & N. L. Meyer, eds. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14. 2003 (Pl SAfr ed2)
  • Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 1963 (Glea Cron)
  • Grellin, J. K. & J. Philpott A reference guide to medicinal plants. 1990 (RefGuide MedPl)
  • Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. (pers. comm.)
  • Hedberg, I. & S. Edwards Flora of Ethiopia. 1989- (and Eritrea. 2000) (F Ethiop)
  • Henderson, L. Alien weeds and invasive plants: a complete guide to declared weeds and invaders in South Africa. Plant Protection Research Institute, Handbook 12. 2001 (Weeds SAfr 2001)
  • Henderson, M. et al. Declared weeds and alien invader plants in South Africa. Botanical Research Institute, bulletin 413. 1987 (Weeds SAfr)
  • Holm, L. et al. A geographical atlas of world weeds. 1979 (Atlas WWeed)
  • Huang, Q. Q. et al. 2009. Identifying the most noxious invasive plants in China: role of geographical origin, life form and means of introduction Biodivers. & Conservation 18:305-316.
  • Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): plant threats to Pacific ecosystems (on-line resource). (Pacif I Ecosyst Risk)
  • Instituto de Botánica Darwinion Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares. 2008 (F ConoSur)
  • Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS) Australian plant common name database (on-line resource). (Aust Pl Common Names)
  • Iwatsuki, K. et al. Flora of Japan. 1993- (F Japan)
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75. 1999 (L Ecuador)
  • Jorgensen, P. M., ed. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia (Catalogue of vascular plants of Bolivia) (on-line resource). (L Bolivia Online)
  • Kellerman, T. S. et al. Plant poisonings and mycotoxicoses of livestock in Southern Africa. 1988 (Kellerman et al.)
  • Kingsbury, J. M. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. 1964 (Kingsbury)
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. Flora SSSR. 1934-1964 (F USSR)
  • Krasnoborov, I. M., ed. Flora of Siberia (English translation). 2000- (F Siberia)
  • Löve, D. & P. Dansereau 1959. Biosystematic studies on Xanthium: taxonomic appraisal and ecological status Canad. J. Bot. 37:204.
  • Lazarides, M. & B. Hince CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia. 1993 (Econ Pl Aust)
  • McVaugh, R. Flora Novo-Galiciana. 1983- (F NGalicia)
  • Moerman, D. Native American ethnobotany, ed. 5. 1998 (Nat Amer Ethnobot)
  • Pammel, L. H. Manual of poisonous plants. 1911 (Pammel)
  • Parsons, W. T. & E. G. Cuthbertson Noxious weeds of Australia. 1992 (Noxweed Aust)
  • Radford, A. E. et al., eds. Vascular flora of the southeastern United States. 1980- (F SE US)
  • Rechinger, K. H., ed. Flora iranica. 1963- (F Iran)
  • Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  • Scoggan, H. J. The flora of Canada, 4 vol. 1978-1979 (F Canada)
  • Sell, P. & G. Murrell Flora of Great Britain and Ireland. 1996- (F GB Ire)
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  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). 1994- (F ChinaEng)

Check other web resources for Xanthium spinosum L. :

Images:

  • Fruits: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image