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Taxon: Xanthium strumarium L.

 
Genus: Xanthium
Family: Asteraceae (alt.Compositae)
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Tribe: Heliantheae
Nomen number: 42072
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:987. 1753
Link to protologue:
Comment: [treated here in the broad sense]
Typification: View in Linnean Typification Project
Name Verified on: 25-Mar-2012 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 2 (2 active, 1 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

  • California-bur  (Source: Econ Pl Aust) - English
  • Canada cocklebur  (Source: PLANTS) - English
  • cocklebur  (Source: Pl Book) - English
  • ditchbur  (Source: Aust Pl Common Names) - English
  • large cocklebur  (Source: Weeds SAfr 2001) - English
  • Noogoora-bur  (Source: Econ Pl Aust) - English
  • rough cocklebur  (Source: BSBI) - English
  • Siberian cocklebur  (Source: Herbs Commerce ed2) - English
  • kankerroos  (Source: Weeds SAfr 2001) - Afrikaans
  • cocklebur   - English (Canada)
  • lampourde glouteron  (Source: F NAmer) - French
  • lampourde glouteron   - French (Canada)
  • gewöhnliche Spitzklette  (Source: Zander Ency) - German
  • o-namomi  (Source: F Japan) - Japanese Rōmaji
  • carrapicho-de-carneiro  (Source: pers. comm.) - Portuguese (Brazil)
  • carrapicho-grande  (Source: pers. comm.) - Portuguese (Brazil)
  • gullfrö  (Source: Kulturvaxtdatabas) - Swedish
  • cang er  (Source: F ChinaEng) - Transcribed Chinese

Economic Importance:

  • Medicines: folklore (fide Healing Pl India, as Xanthium indicum)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals; mammals; mammals; mammals
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant (fide Econ Pl Aust, as Xanthium orientale; Invasive Pl Spec; Weeds SAfr 2001)

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Africa
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Egypt, Morocco

    Asia-Temperate
    • WESTERN ASIA: Afghanistan, Egypt, [Sinai] Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey
    • CAUCASUS: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia
    • SIBERIA: Russian Federation-Eastern Siberia, [Eastern Siberia] Russian Federation-Western Siberia [Western Siberia]
    • MIDDLE ASIA: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
    • MONGOLIA: Mongolia
    • RUSSIAN FAR EAST: Russian Federation [Primorye, Sakhalin]
    • CHINA: China [Anhui Sheng, Zhejiang Sheng, Fujian Sheng, Heilongjiang Sheng, Henan Sheng, Hebei Sheng, Hunan Sheng, Hubei Sheng, Jiangxi Sheng, Jiangsu Sheng, Jilin Sheng, Guangdong Sheng, Guizhou Sheng, Liaoning Sheng, Shanxi Sheng, Shandong Sheng, Shaanxi Sheng, Sichuan Sheng, Qinghai Sheng, Yunnan Sheng, Nei Mongol Zizhiqu, Guangxi Zhuangzu Zizhiqu, Ningxia Huizi Zizhiqu, Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu, Xizang Zizhiqu, Hainan Sheng]
    • EASTERN ASIA: Japan, Korea, Taiwan

    Asia-Tropical
    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: India

    Europe
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Russian Federation-European part, [European part] Ukraine [Krym]
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece (incl. Crete), Italy (incl. Sardinia, Sicily), Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France (incl. Corsica), Portugal, Spain

    Northern America
    • SUBARCTIC AMERICA: United States [Alaska]
    • EASTERN CANADA: Canada [New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Québec]
    • WESTERN CANADA: Canada [Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan]
    • NORTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Connecticut, Indiana, Maine (s.), Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia]
    • NORTH-CENTRAL U.S.A.: United States [Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin]
    • NORTHWESTERN U.S.A.: United States [Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming]
    • SOUTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, District of Columbia]
    • SOUTH-CENTRAL U.S.A.: United States [New Mexico, Texas]
    • SOUTHWESTERN U.S.A.: United States [Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah]
    • NORTHERN MEXICO: Mexico [Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Durango, Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas, Baja California (Norte), Baja California Sur]
    • SOUTHERN MEXICO: Mexico [Aguascalientes, Chiapas, Colima, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, México, Michoacán de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave, Yucatán, Ciudad de México]

    Southern America
    • NORTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: Venezuela


    Naturalized

    Africa
    • MACARONESIA: Portugal, [Azores, Madeira Islands] Spain [Canary Islands]
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia
    • NORTHEAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan
    • EAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Kenya, Tanzania
    • WEST TROPICAL AFRICA: Nigeria
    • SOUTH TROPICAL AFRICA: Mozambique, Zimbabwe
    • SOUTHERN AFRICA: Botswana, Eswatini, Lesotho, South Africa
    • WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN: Mauritius, Reunion

    Asia-Temperate
    • ARABIAN PENINSULA: Yemen
    • WESTERN ASIA: Israel, Turkey
    • CAUCASUS: Armenia, Georgia, Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia [Ciscaucasia]

    Asia-Tropical
    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: Nepal
    • INDO-CHINA: Thailand
    • MALESIA: Philippines

    Australasia
    • AUSTRALIA: Australia
    • NEW ZEALAND: New Zealand

    Europe
    • NORTHERN EUROPE: United Kingdom
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation-European part, [European part] Ukraine (incl. Krym)
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece (incl. Crete), Italy (incl. Sardinia, Sicily), Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: Portugal, Spain (incl. Baleares)

    Pacific
    • NORTH-CENTRAL PACIFIC: United States [Hawaii, United States Minor Outlying Islands]
    • SOUTH-CENTRAL PACIFIC: French Polynesia
    • SOUTHWESTERN PACIFIC: Fiji, New Caledonia

    Southern America
    • CARIBBEAN: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, [Antigua] Bahamas, Cuba, Dominica, Hispaniola, Martinique, St. Kitts and Nevis, [Nevis] United States, [Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, U.S.] Virgin Islands (British) [Tortola]


    Other (exact native range obscure)

References:

  1. Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & M. T. Strong. 2012. Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 98
  2. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  3. Allan, H. H. B. et al. 1961-. Flora of New Zealand.
  4. BernhardSmith, A. 1923. Poisonous plants of all countries, 2nd ed. Note: poisonous
  5. Bosser, J. M. et al., eds. 1976-. Flores des Mascareignes.
  6. Botanical Society of the British Isles. BSBI taxon database (on-line resource).
  7. Boulos, L. 1999-. Flora of Egypt
  8. Breedlove, D. E., ed. 1981-. Flora of Chiapas.
  9. Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson. 1998. Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning Note: poisonous
  10. Correll, D. S. & H. B. Correll. 1982. Flora of the Bahama archipelago.
  11. Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas
  12. Cronquist, A. et al. 1972-. Intermountain flora.
  13. Darbyshire, S. J. 2003. Inventory of Canadian Agricultural Weeds Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 251-252.
  14. Davis, P. H., ed. 1965-1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  15. Erhardt, W. et al. 2008. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen
  16. Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  17. FNA Editorial Committee. 1993-. Flora of North America.
  18. Forzza, R. C. et al., coord. Lista de espécies da flora do Brasil (on-line resource).
  19. Germishuizen, G. & N. L. Meyer, eds. 2003. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14
  20. Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada.
  21. Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. Note: re. Brazilian common names
  22. Grubov, V. I. 2001. Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia
  23. Hansen, A. & P. Sunding. 1993. Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, ed. 4. Sommerfeltia vol. 17.
  24. Hara, H. et al. 1978-1982. An enumeration of the flowering plants of Nepal.
  25. Hedberg, I. & S. Edwards. 1989-. Flora of Ethiopia Note: Eritrea added in 2000
  26. Henderson, L. 2001. Alien weeds and invasive plants: a complete guide to declared weeds and invaders in South Africa. Plant Protection Research Institute, Handbook 12
  27. Henderson, M. et al. 1987. Declared weeds and alien invader plants in South Africa. Botanical Research Institute, bulletin 413
  28. Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: higher plants of California
  29. Hitchcock, C. L. et al. 1955-1969. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest.
  30. Hokche, O. et al. 2008. Nuevo catálogo de la flora vascular de Venezuela.
  31. Holm, L. et al. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds
  32. Howard, R. 1974-1989. Flora of the lesser Antilles.
  33. Hyde, M. et al. Flora of Mozambique (on-line resource).
  34. Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): plant threats to Pacific ecosystems (on-line resource).
  35. Instituto de Botánica Darwinion. 2008. Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares.
  36. Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS). Australian plant common name database (on-line resource).
  37. Iwatsuki, K. et al. 1993-. Flora of Japan.
  38. Kellerman, T. S. et al. 1988. Plant poisonings and mycotoxicoses of livestock in Southern Africa Note: poisonous
  39. Kingsbury, J. M. 1964. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. Note: poisonous
  40. Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934-1964. Flora SSSR.
  41. Lazarides, M. & B. Hince. 1993. CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia Note: = Xanthiumorientale L.
  42. Mabberley, D. J. 1997. The plant-book: a portable dictionary of the vascular plants, ed. 2
  43. Magee, D. W. & H. E. Ahles. 1999. Flora of the Northeast. A manual of the vascular flora of New England and adjacent New York.
  44. Martin, W. C. & C. R. Hutchins. 1980. A flora of New Mexico.
  45. McGregor, R. L. et al. (The Great Plains Flora Association). 1986. Flora of the Great Plains.
  46. McVaugh, R. 1983-. Flora Novo-Galiciana.
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  48. Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. A California flora.
  49. Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University. 1998. Medicinal plants in the Republic of Korea. WHO Regional Publications Western Pacific Series No. 21. URL: http://www.wpro.who.int/internet/files/pub/97/295.pdf target='_blank'
  50. Oh, S.-Y. & J.-H. Pak. 2001. Distribution maps of vascular plants in Korea Note: Academybook Publishing Co., Seoul.
  51. Pammel, L. H. 1911. Manual of poisonous plants. Note: poisonous
  52. Parsons, W. T. & E. G. Cuthbertson. 1992. Noxious weeds of Australia Inkata Press, Melbourne, Australia. Note: recognize three species usually included in X. strumarium complex
  53. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  54. Pottier-Alapetite, G. 1979-1981. Flore de la Tunisie: Angiospermes-Dicotyledones.
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  69. Wursten, B. et al. Flora of Zimbabwe (on-line resource).

Check other web resources for Xanthium strumarium L. :

Images:

  • Fruit: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Fruit inner wall: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Fruits: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?42072. Accessed 21 November 2019.