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Taxon: Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench

 
Genus: Abelmoschus
Family: Malvaceae
Subfamily: Malvoideae
Tribe: Hibisceae
Nomen number: 619
Place of publication: Methodus 617. 1794
Link to protologue:
Comment: a probable allopolyploid
Name Verified on: 26-Jul-1995 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 2407 (2255 active, 1254 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Human food: vegetable
  • Medicines: folklore (fide Herbs Commerce ed2; CRC MedHerbs ed2)

Distributional Range:

    Cultivated



    Africa
    • MACARONESIA: Cape Verde
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Egypt
    • NORTHEAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan
    • EAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda
    • WEST-CENTRAL TROPICAL AFRICA: Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon
    • WEST TROPICAL AFRICA: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote D'Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria
    • SOUTH TROPICAL AFRICA: Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe
    • SOUTHERN AFRICA: Botswana, Namibia
    • WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN: Comoros, Madagascar

    Asia-Temperate
    • ARABIAN PENINSULA: Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Yemen
    • WESTERN ASIA: Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey
    • CHINA: China
    • EASTERN ASIA: Japan

    Asia-Tropical
    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka
    • INDO-CHINA: Myanmar, Thailand
    • MALESIA: Malaysia, Philippines

    Europe
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Former Yugoslavia, Greece

    Northern America
    • Mexico, United States

    Pacific
    • SOUTHWESTERN PACIFIC: Fiji

    Southern America
    • CARIBBEAN: Barbados
    • CENTRAL AMERICA: Belize, Guatemala
    • BRAZIL: Brazil


References:

  1. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  2. Bates, D. M. 1968. Notes on the cultivated Malvaceae 2. Abelmoschus. Baileya 16:110-112.
  3. Bisht, I. S. & K. V. Bhat. 2007. Vegetable crops: Okra (Abelmoschus spp.). Genetic resources, chromosome engineering, and crop improvement 148-183. Note: CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton - London - New York
  4. Borssum Waalkes, J. v. 1966. Malesian Malvaceae revised. Blumea 14:100-101.
  5. Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959-. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae.
  6. Dassanayake, M. D. & F. R. Fosberg, eds. 1980-. A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon.
  7. Demilly, D. et al. 2001. Liste alphabétique des principales espèces de plantes cultivées et de mauvaises herbes. Noms latins et noms français, ed. 7 Note: GEVES-SNES, Beaucouzé, France
  8. Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs
  9. Erhardt, W. et al. 2008. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen
  10. Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  11. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Abelmoschus+esculentus&quantity=1&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  12. Hackett, C. & J. Carolane. 1982. Edible Horticultural Crops Academic Press.
  13. Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6
  14. Hermann, M. 1997. Arracacha. Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft. In: Hermann, M. & J. Heller (eds.), Andean roots and tubers: Ahipa, arracacha, maca and yacon. 87.
  15. Hoang, H.-D. et al. 1997. Additional notes to the checklist of Korean cultivated plants (5). Consolidated summary and indexes. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 44:352.
  16. Humbert, J.-H., ed. 1936-. Flore de Madagascar et des Comores.
  17. International Seed Testing Association. 1982. A Multilingual Glossary of Common Plant-Names 1. Field crops, grasses and vegetables, ed. 2.
  18. Jørgensen, P. M., ed. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia (Catalogue of vascular plants of Bolivia) (on-line resource).
  19. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  20. Mabberley, D. J. 1997. The plant-book: a portable dictionary of the vascular plants, ed. 2
  21. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2
  22. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2 American Herbal Products Association, Silver Spring, Maryland.
  23. Patil, P. et al. 2015. A systematic review of the genus Abelmoschus (Malvaceae). Rheedea 25:14-30.
  24. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  25. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  26. Schafleitner, R. et al. 2013. The okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) transcriptome as a source for gene sequence information and molecular markers for diversity analysis. Gene 517:27-36. Note: polyploid; 2n=72, 108, 120, 132, and 144
  27. Siemonsma, J. S. & Kasem Piluek, eds. 1993. Vegetables. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 8:57.
  28. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994-. Flora of China (English edition).
  29. PROTABASE, the information base of PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) (on-line resource).

Check other web resources for Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench :

  • PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories
  • BONAP North American Plant Atlas of the Biota of North America Program:
  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • SIBIS: South African National Biodiversity Institute's (SANBI) Integrated Biodiversity System
  • On-line Flora of Zimbabwe:
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Images:

  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seeds: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?619. Accessed 22 September 2019.