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Taxon: Avicennia germinans (L.) L.

Genus: Avicennia
Family: Acanthaceae
Subfamily: Avicennioideae
Nomen number: 70116
Place of publication: Sp. pl. ed. 3, 2:891. 1764
Link to protologue:
Name Verified on: 09-Mar-1995 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 1 (0 active, 0 available) in National Plant Germplasm System

Autonyms (not in current use), synonyms and invalid designations:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym, I invalid designation)

Common names:

  • black mangrove  (Source: F Jam) - English
  • mangle  (Source: F Veracruz) - Spanish
  • mangle negro  (Source: F Veracruz) - Spanish

Economic Importance:

  • Materials: tannin/dyestuff;

Distributional Range:


    • WEST-CENTRAL TROPICAL AFRICA: Cameroon (w.), Democratic Republic of the Congo (w.), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon (w.), Sao Tome and Principe
    • WEST TROPICAL AFRICA: Cote D'Ivoire (s.), Gambia (w.), Ghana (s.), Guinea (s.), Guinea-Bissau (w.), Mauritania (w.), Nigeria (s.), Senegal (w.), Sierra Leone (s.), Togo (s.)

    Northern America
    • SOUTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Florida]
    • SOUTH-CENTRAL U.S.A.: United States [Texas]
    • Mexico (coasts)

    Southern America
    • CARIBBEAN: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Bermuda, Cuba, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Vincent and Grenadines, United States [Puerto Rico]
    • CENTRAL AMERICA: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama
    • NORTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: French Guiana (n.), Guyana (n.), Suriname (n.), Venezuela (n.)
    • BRAZIL: Brazil (n. & e.)
    • WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA: Colombia (n. & w.), Ecuador (w.), Peru [Tumbes]


  1. Adams, C. 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica
  2. Aubréville, A. et al., eds. 1961-. Flore du Gabon.
  3. Aubréville, A. et al., eds. 1963-. Flore du Cameroun.
  4. Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi. 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45
  5. Brunel, J. F. et al., eds. 1984. Flore analytique du Togo. Phanerogames
  6. Compère, P. 1963. The correct name of the Afro-American black mangrove. Taxon 12:150-152. Note: discusses nomenclature and authorship
  7. Dodd, R. S. et al. 2000. Evolutionary divergence in the pan-Atlantic mangrove Avicennia germinans. New Phytol. 145:115-125. Note: Old & New World representatives are distinct
  8. Englert, J. M. et al. 1999-. USDA-NRCS Improved conservation plant materials released by NRCS and cooperators
  9. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Avicennia+germinans&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  10. Gillis, W. T. 1974. Name changes for the seed plants in the Bahama flora. Rhodora 76:113.
  11. Gómez-Pompa, A. & V. Sosa, eds. 1978-. Flora de Veracruz.
  12. Görts-van Rijn, A. R. A., ed. 1986-. Flora of the Guianas. Note: lists as Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn
  13. Howard, R. 1974-1989. Flora of the lesser Antilles.
  14. Keay, R. W. J. 1989. Trees of Nigeria
  15. Little, E. L. Jr. 1961. Avicennia nitida (Nomenclature). Phytologia 8:49. Note: lists as Avicennia germinans L.; = A. nitida Jacq.
  16. Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyermark. 1946-1976. Flora of Guatemala.
  17. Stearn, W. T. 1958. A key to West Indian mangroves. Kew Bull. 13:33-37. Note: lists as Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn
  18. Uphof, J. C. T. 1968. Dictionary of economic plants, ed. 2. Note: = Avicennia nitida Jacq.
  19. Woodson, R. E. & R. W. Schery, eds. 1943-1980. Flora of Panama.

Check other web resources for Avicennia germinans (L.) L. :

  • PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories
  • BONAP North American Plant Atlas of the Biota of North America Program:
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.


Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?70116. Accessed 8 August 2020.