Taxon: Avicennia germinans (L.) L.

Genus: Avicennia
Family: Acanthaceae
  Subfamily: Avicennioideae
Nomen number: 70116
Place of publication: Sp. pl. ed. 3, 2:891. 1764
Name Verified on: 09-Mar-1995 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 12-Jul-1999
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Miami (MIA)
Accessions: 1 in National Plant Germplasm System

Common names:

  • black mangrove  (Source: F Jam) - English
  • mangle  (Source: F Veracruz) - Spanish
  • mangle negro  (Source: F Veracruz) - Spanish

Economic Importance:

  • Materials: tannin/dyestuff (fide Dict Econ Pl)

Distributional Range:


  • Africa

    • West Tropical Africa: Cote D'Ivoire; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Mauritania; Nigeria; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Togo
    • West-Central Tropical Africa: Cameroon; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Sao Tome and Principe; Zaire
  • Northern America

    • : Mexico
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - Texas
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Florida
  • Southern America

    • Brazil: Brazil
    • Caribbean: Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Bahamas; Bermuda; Cuba; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Hispaniola; Jamaica; Martinique; Montserrat; Puerto Rico; St. Kitts and Nevis; St. Vincent and Grenadines
    • Mesoamerica: Belize; Costa Rica; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Panama
    • Northern South America: French Guiana; Guyana; Suriname; Venezuela
    • Western South America: Colombia; Ecuador; Peru - Tumbes


  • Adams, C. Flowering plants of Jamaica. 1972 (F Jam)
  • Aubréville, A. et al., eds. Flore du Cameroun. 1963- (F Cameroun)
  • Aubréville, A. et al., eds. Flore du Gabon. 1961- (F Gabon)
  • Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45. 1993 (L Peru)
  • Brunel, J. F. et al., eds. Flore analytique du Togo. Phanerogames. 1984 (F Togo)
  • Compere, P. 1963. The correct name of the Afro-American black mangrove (Taxon) 12:150-152.
  • Dodd, R. S. et al. 2000. Evolutionary divergence in the pan-Atlantic mangrove Avicennia germinans New Phytol. 145:115-125.
  • Englert, J. M. et al. USDA-NRCS Improved conservation plant materials released by NRCS and cooperators. 1999- (NRCS Cons Pl Mat)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Gómez-Pompa, A. & V. Sosa, eds. Flora de Veracruz. 1978- (F Veracruz)
  • Görts-van Rijn, A. R. A., ed. Flora of the Guianas. 1986- (F Guianas)
  • Gillis, W. T. 1974. Name changes for the seed plants in the Bahama flora (Rhodora) 76:113.
  • Howard, R. Flora of the lesser Antilles. 1974-1989 (F LAnt)
  • Keay, R. W. J. Trees of Nigeria. 1989 (Trees Nigeria)
  • Little, E. L. Jr. 1961. Avicennia nitida (Nomenclature) (Phytologia) 8:49.
  • Núñez Meléndez, E. Plantas medicinales de Puerto Rico: Folklore y fundamentos científicos. 1982 (Pl Med PR)
  • Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyermark Flora of Guatemala. 1946-1976 (F Guat)
  • Stearn, W. T. 1958. A key to West Indian mangroves Kew Bull. 13:33-37.
  • Uphof, J. C. T. Dictionary of economic plants, ed. 2. 1968 (Dict Econ Pl)
  • Woodson, R. E. & R. W. Schery, eds. Flora of Panama. 1943-1980 (F Panama)


Check other web resources for Avicennia germinans (L.) L. :