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Taxon: Bixa orellana L.

 
Genus: Bixa
Family: Bixaceae
Nomen number: 7249
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:512. 1753
Link to protologue: https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/358531
Typification: View in Linnean Typification Project
Name Verified on: 20-May-1992 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 28 (1 active, 0 available) in National Plant Germplasm System

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Food additives: coloring (a red dye made of bixin and norbixin carotenoids)
  • Materials:
  • Medicines: folklore; folklore

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Northern America
    • NORTHERN MEXICO: Mexico [Sinaloa]
    • SOUTHERN MEXICO: Mexico [Chiapas, Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacán de Ocampo, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Tabasco, Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave, Yucatán]

    Southern America
    • CENTRAL AMERICA: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama
    • NORTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela
    • BRAZIL: Brazil
    • WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA: Bolivia (n.), Colombia, Ecuador, Peru


    Cultivated (widely cult. in tropics)

    Naturalized (widely natzd. elsewhere in tropics)

References:

  1. Adams, C. 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica
  2. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  3. Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi. 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45
  4. Cannon, J. & M. Cannon. 1994. Dye plants and dyeing The Herbert Press & The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  5. Dodson, C. H. & A. H. Gentry. 1978. Flora of the Rio Palenque science center.
  6. Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs
  7. Encke, F. et al. 1984. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage
  8. Exell, A. W. et al., eds. 1960-. Flora zambesiaca.
  9. Feuillet, C. 1998. pers. comm. Note: re. French common names
  10. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Bixa+orellana&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  11. Forzza, R. C. et al., coord. Lista de espécies da flora do Brasil (on-line resource).
  12. Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. Note: re. Brazilian common names
  13. Harling, G. & B. Sparre, eds. 1973-. Flora of Ecuador.
  14. Howard, R. 1974-1989. Flora of the lesser Antilles.
  15. Keay, R. W. J. & F. N. Hepper. 1953-1972. Flora of west tropical Africa, ed. 2.
  16. León (J. S. Sauget) & Alain (E. E. Liogier). 1946-1969. Flora de Cuba
  17. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  18. Liogier, H. A. & L. F. Martorell. 1982. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis.
  19. Lombello, R. A. & C. A. F. Pinto-Maglio. 2014. Cytogenetics and reproductive biology of Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae). Cytologia 79:379-386. Note: cytogenetic characterization using differential chromosome staining support a diploid number of 14, with mostly metacentric chromosomes (6m + 1sm); a bimodal karyotype suggests a chromosomal fusion; reproductive biology data supports Bixa orellana as self-compatible, but preferentially alogamous, although protandry and synchrony co-occur in the species; viable pollen index was high (over 98%)
  20. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2
  21. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2 American Herbal Products Association, Silver Spring, Maryland.
  22. McVaugh, R. 1983-. Flora Novo-Galiciana.
  23. Moreira, P. A. et al. 2015. The domestication of annatto (Bixa orellana) from Bixa urucurana in Amazonia.. Econ. Bot. 69:127-135.
  24. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  25. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  26. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants
  27. Rivera-Madrid, R. et al. 2016. Carotenoid derivates in achiote (Bixa orellana) seeds: Synthesis and health promoting properties. Front. Plant Sci. 7:1406. Note: it comments that toxicological data on annatto pigments are limited, and amounts of the active pigments (bixin and norbixin) are variable depending on plant variants and type of extract
  28. Roosmalen, M. G. van. 1977. Surinaams vruchtenboek
  29. Spellman, D. L. et al. 1975, 1981. A list of the monocotyledoneae/dicotyledonae of Belize. Rhodora v. 77 & 83.
  30. Spichiger, R., ed. 1985-. Flora del Paraguay.
  31. Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyermark. 1946-1976. Flora of Guatemala.
  32. Steenis, C. G. G. J. van, ed. 1948-. Flora malesiana.
  33. Steyermark, J. A. et al., eds. 1995-. Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana. Note: Missouri Botanical Garden & Timber Press
  34. Turrill, W. B. et al., eds. 1952-. Flora of tropical East Africa.
  35. ul-Islam, S. et al. 2016. Phytochemistry, biological activities and potential of annatto in natural colorant production for industrial applications - A review.. J. Adv. Res. 7:499-514. Note: industrial uses of annatto include dyeing textiles mainly cotton; it is also used in leather dyeing
  36. Woodson, R. E. & R. W. Schery, eds. 1943-1980. Flora of Panama.
  37. 1961. Webster's third new international dictionary.
  38. PROTABASE, the information base of PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) (on-line resource).

Check other web resources for Bixa orellana L. :

  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Images:

  • Embryo drawing: U.S. National Seed Herbarium drawing
  • Fruit: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seeds: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?7249. Accessed 20 November 2019.