Taxon: Brassica rapa L.

 
Genus: Brassica
Family: Brassicaceae (alt.Cruciferae)
      Tribe: Brassiceae
Nomen number: 7685
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:666. 1753
Comment: includes miscellaneous groups not included elsewhere (in subspecies)
Name Verified on: 02-Jun-2010 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 09-May-2011
Species priority site is: North Central Regional PI Station (NC7)
Accessions: 763 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Human food: vegetable (fide Food Feed Crops US, for miscellaneous groups not included elsewhere)
  • Gene sources: disease resistance for rape (fide Phytopatologia 97:1391. 2007, for resynthesizing B. napus based on resistant lines)
  • Gene sources: progenitor of mustard (fide Theor Appl Genet 75:784-794. 1988)
  • Gene sources: progenitor of rape (fide Theor Appl Genet 65:204-205. 1983; Theor Appl Genet 75:792. 1988)
  • Gene sources: secondary genetic relative of cabbage/kale (fide Euphytica 69:16. 1993, based on crossability with B. oleracea and other members of its cytodeme)
  • Gene sources: secondary genetic relative of rape (fide Transgenic Res 3:265. 1994, based on crossability with B. napusas the female donor, and all progeny with reduced pollen fertility)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of Abyssinian cabbage (based on reports of successful hybridization with Brassica carinata fide Euphytica 158:213, 217. 2007)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of arugula (fide Euphytica 158:213, 217. 2007, based on reports of successful hybridization with Eruca vesicaria)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of black mustard (fide Euphytica 158:213, 217. 2007, based on reports of successful hybridization with Brassica nigra)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of crambe (based on hybrids with Crambe abyssinica via embryo rescue fide Wild Crop Rel Oils 5:111. 2011)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of mustard (fide Euphytica 158:213, 217. 2007, based on reports of successful hybridization with Brassica juncea)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of radish (based on hybrid formation with Raphanus sativus fide Guide Germ Brassica)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of white mustard (based on reports of hybridization with Sinapis alba by embryo culture and protoplast fusion fide Warwick et al. 2009)
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (fide Kellerman et al.; Cooper & Johnson)

Distributional Range:

    Other:

    . widespread weed, probable origin Eurasia

    Naturalized:

  • Africa

    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia
    • Southern Africa: South Africa
  • Asia-Temperate

    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Dagestan; Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia - Ciscaucasia
    • Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
    • Mongolia: Mongolia
    • Russian Far East: Russian Federation-Far East - Far East
    • Siberia: Russian Federation-Eastern Siberia - Eastern Siberia; Russian Federation-Western Siberia - Western Siberia
  • Australasia

    • Australia: Australia
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • Europe

    • East Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Russian Federation-European part - European part; Ukraine
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Finland; Ireland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom
    • Southeastern Europe: Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece; Italy; Macedonia; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Spain
  • Northern America

    • : Canada; Mexico; United States
  • Pacific

    • North-Central Pacific: United States - Hawaii
    • Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia
  • Southern America

    • Caribbean: Hispaniola
    • Mesoamerica: Nicaragua
    • Southern South America: Argentina; Chile; Paraguay - Alto Paraguay; Uruguay
    • Western South America: Bolivia; Ecuador; Peru

  • Cultivated:

    . widely cult.

    Adventive:

  • Africa

    • East Tropical Africa: Kenya; Tanzania; Uganda
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Eritrea; Ethiopia
    • South Tropical Africa: Mozambique; Zimbabwe
  • Asia-Tropical

    • Indian Subcontinent: India; Pakistan
  • Southern America

    • Brazil: Brazil
    • Caribbean: Barbados; Guadeloupe; Martinique

References:

  • PROTABASE, the information base of PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) (on-line resource). (PROTA4U)
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & M. T. Strong Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 98. 2012 (L West Indies)
  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin). 2009 (Vara kulturvaxt namn)
  • Ali, S. I. & S. M. H. Jafri, eds. Flora of Libya. 1976- (F Libya)
  • Allan, H. H. B. et al. Flora of New Zealand. 1961- (F NZeal)
  • Anderson, J. K. & S. I. Warwick 1999. Chromosome number evolution in the tribe Brassiceae (Brassicaceae): evidence from isozyme number Pl. Syst. Evol. 215:255-285.
  • Anderson, J. K. & S. I. Warwick 1999. Chromosome number evolution in the tribe Brassiceae (Brassicaceae): evidence from isozyme number Pl. Syst. Evol. 215:255-285.
  • Botanical Society of the British Isles BSBI taxon database (on-line resource). (BSBI)
  • Boulos, L. Flora of Egypt. 1999- (F Egypt)
  • Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45. 1993 (L Peru)
  • Chen, B.-Y. & W. K. Heneen 1989. Resynthesized Brassica napus L.: A review of its potential in breeding and genetic analysis Hereditas (Beijing) 111:255-263.
  • Chen, B.-Y. & W. K. Heneen 1989. Resynthesized Brassica napus L.: A review of its potential in breeding and genetic analysis Hereditas (Beijing) 111:255-263.
  • Chen, H.-F. et al. 2007. Production and genetic analysis of partial hybrids in intertribal crosses between Brassica species (B. rapa, B. napus) and Capsella bursa-pastoris Pl. Cell Rep. 26:1791-1800.
  • Chen, H.-F. et al. 2007. Production and genetic analysis of partial hybrids in intertribal crosses between Brassica species (B. rapa, B. napus) and Capsella bursa-pastoris Pl. Cell Rep. 26:1791-1800.
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae. 1959- (F China)
  • Chrungu, B. et al. 1999. Production and characterization of interspecific hybrids between Brassica maurorum and crop brassicas Theor. Appl. Genet. 98:608-613.
  • Chrungu, B. et al. 1999. Production and characterization of interspecific hybrids between Brassica maurorum and crop brassicas Theor. Appl. Genet. 98:608-613.
  • CIBA-GEIGY, Basel, Switzerland Documenta CIBA-GEIGY (Grass weeds 1. 1980, 2. 1981; Monocot weeds 3. 1982; Dicot weeds 1. 1988) (Weed CIBA)
  • Committee on Stabilization 1975. Report of the standing committee on stabilization of specific names (Taxon) 24:172.
  • Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson Poisonous plants in Britain and their effects on animals and man. 1984 (Cooper & Johnson)
  • Cufodontis, G. Enumeratio plantarum aethiopiae: Spermatophyta. 1953-1972 (F EthiopCuf)
  • Demilly, D. et al. Liste alphabétique des principales espèces de plantes cultivées et de mauvaises herbes. Noms latins et noms français, ed. 7. 2001 (L Noms French ed7)
  • Denford, K. E. 1976. Isoenzyme studies in members of the genus Brassica Bot. Not. 128:455-462.
  • Erhardt, W. et al. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen. 2008 (Zander Ency)
  • Erickson, L. R. et al. 1983. Restriction patterns reveal origins of chloroplast genomes in Brassica amphiploids Theor. Appl. Genet. 65:201-206.
  • Erickson, L. R. et al. 1983. Restriction patterns reveal origins of chloroplast genomes in Brassica amphiploids Theor. Appl. Genet. 65:201-206.
  • Exell, A. W. et al., eds. Flora zambesiaca. 1960- (F Zamb)
  • Fennane, M. et al., eds. Flore pratique du Maroc. 1999- (F Prat Maroc)
  • FitzJohn, R. G. et al. 2007. Hybridisation within Brassica and allied genera: evaluation of potential for transgene escape (Euphytica) 158:209-230.
  • FitzJohn, R. G. et al. 2007. Hybridisation within Brassica and allied genera: evaluation of potential for transgene escape (Euphytica) 158:209-230.
  • FNA Editorial Committee Flora of North America. 1993- (F NAmer)
  • Forzza, R. C. et al., coord. Lista de espécies da flora do Brasil (on-line resource). (L Brasil Online)
  • Foster, S. & J. A. Duke A field guide to medicinal plants: Eastern/Central North America, 2nd ed. 2000 (EastC Med Pl)
  • Garg, H. et al. 2007. Hybridizing Brassica rapa with wild crucifers Diplotaxis erucoides and Brassica maurorum (Euphytica) 156:417-424.
  • Garg, H. et al. 2007. Hybridizing Brassica rapa with wild crucifers Diplotaxis erucoides and Brassica maurorum (Euphytica) 156:417-424.
  • Germishuizen, G. & N. L. Meyer, eds. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14. 2003 (Pl SAfr ed2)
  • Grellin, J. K. & J. Philpott A reference guide to medicinal plants. 1990 (RefGuide MedPl)
  • Greuter, W. et al., eds. Med-Checklist. 1984- (L Medit)
  • Guo, Y. et al. 2014. Center of origin and centers of diversity in an ancient crop, Brassica rapa (turnip rape) J. Heredity 105:555-565.
  • Hanelt, P., ed. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6. 2001 (Mansf Ency)
  • Hara, H. et al. An enumeration of the flowering plants of Nepal. 1978-1982 (L Nepal)
  • Hedberg, I. & S. Edwards Flora of Ethiopia. 1989- (and Eritrea. 2000) (F Ethiop)
  • Hegi, G. et al. 1986. Illustrierte Flora von Mittel-Europa. ed. 1:1906-1931; ed. 2:1936-68; ed. 3:1966- (IllF MEur) 4(1):454.
  • Iniguez-Luy, F. L. et al. 2009. Development of public immortal mapping populations, molecular markers and linkage maps for rapid cycling Brassica rapa and B. oleracea Theor. Appl. Genet. 120:31-43.
  • Iniguez-Luy, F. L. et al. 2009. Development of public immortal mapping populations, molecular markers and linkage maps for rapid cycling Brassica rapa and B. oleracea Theor. Appl. Genet. 120:31-43.
  • Inomata, N. 1993. Crossability and cytology of hybrid progenies in the cross between Brassica campestris and three wild relatives of B. oleracea, B. bourgeaui, B. cretica and B. montana (Euphytica) 69:7-17.
  • Inomata, N. 1993. Crossability and cytology of hybrid progenies in the cross between Brassica campestris and three wild relatives of B. oleracea, B. bourgeaui, B. cretica and B. montana (Euphytica) 69:7-17.
  • Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): plant threats to Pacific ecosystems (on-line resource). (Pacif I Ecosyst Risk)
  • Instituto de Botánica Darwinion Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares. 2008 (F ConoSur)
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75. 1999 (L Ecuador)
  • Jalas, J. & J. Suominen Atlas florae europaeae. 1972- (Atlas Eur)
  • Jiang, Y. et al. 2007. Genetic diversity of Brassica carinata with emphasis on the interspecific crossability with B. rapa Pl. Breed. (New York) 126:487-491.
  • Jiang, Y. et al. 2007. Genetic diversity of Brassica carinata with emphasis on the interspecific crossability with B. rapa Pl. Breed. (New York) 126:487-491.
  • Kellerman, T. S. et al. Plant poisonings and mycotoxicoses of livestock in Southern Africa. 1988 (Kellerman et al.)
  • Kingsbury, J. M. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. 1964 (Kingsbury)
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. Flora SSSR. 1934-1964 (F USSR)
  • Kunakh, V. A. et al. 2008. Mixoploidy in wild and cultivated species of Cruciferae capable of hybridizing with rapeseed Brassica napus Cytol. & Genet. 42:204-209.
  • Kunakh, V. A. et al. 2008. Mixoploidy in wild and cultivated species of Cruciferae capable of hybridizing with rapeseed Brassica napus Cytol. & Genet. 42:204-209.
  • Lazarides, M. & B. Hince CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia. 1993 (Econ Pl Aust)
  • Lefol, E. et al. 1997. Sexual hybridisation in crosses of cultivated Brassica species with the crucifers Erucastrum gallicum and Raphanus raphanistrum: potential for gene introgression (Euphytica) 95:127-139.
  • Lefol, E. et al. 1997. Sexual hybridisation in crosses of cultivated Brassica species with the crucifers Erucastrum gallicum and Raphanus raphanistrum: potential for gene introgression (Euphytica) 95:127-139.
  • Li, M. et al. 2006. Intersubgenomic heterosis in rapeseed production with a partial new-typed Brassica napus containing subgenome Ar from B. rapa and Cc from Brassica carinata Crop Sci. (Madison) 46:234-242.
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. 1976 (Hortus 3)
  • Mansfeld, R. Die Kulturpflanze, Beiheft 2. 1959 (Mansfeld)
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Moerman, D. Native American ethnobotany, ed. 5. 1998 (Nat Amer Ethnobot)
  • Mouterde, P. Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie. 1966- (F Liban)
  • Nagpal, R. et al. 2008. Molecular systematics of Brassica and allied genera in subtribes Brassicinae, Raphaninae, Moricandiinae, and Cakilinae (Brassicaceae, tribe Brassiceae); the organization and evolution of ribosomal gene families Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 157:545-557.
  • Nagpal, R. et al. 2008. Molecular systematics of Brassica and allied genera in subtribes Brassicinae, Raphaninae, Moricandiinae, and Cakilinae (Brassicaceae, tribe Brassiceae); the organization and evolution of ribosomal gene families Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 157:545-557.
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. Flora of [West] Pakistan. 1970- (F Pak)
  • Olsson, G. 1954. Crosses within the campestris group of the genus Brassica Hereditas (Beijing) 40:414.
  • Plieske, J. & D. Struss 2001. STS markers linked to Phoma resistance genes of the Brassica B-genome revealed sequence homology between Brassica nigra and Brassica napus Theor. Appl. Genet. 102:483-488.
  • Plieske, J. & D. Struss 2001. STS markers linked to Phoma resistance genes of the Brassica B-genome revealed sequence homology between Brassica nigra and Brassica napus Theor. Appl. Genet. 102:483-488.
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  • Pradhan, A. K. et al. 1992. Phylogeny of Brassica and allied genera based on variation in chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA patterns: molecular and taxonomic classifications are incongruous Theor. Appl. Genet. 85:331-340.
  • Pradhan, A. K. et al. 1992. Phylogeny of Brassica and allied genera based on variation in chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA patterns: molecular and taxonomic classifications are incongruous Theor. Appl. Genet. 85:331-340.
  • Rana, D. et al. 2004. Conservation of the microstructure of genome segments in Brassica napus and its diploid relatives Plant J. 40:725-733.
  • Rana, D. et al. 2004. Conservation of the microstructure of genome segments in Brassica napus and its diploid relatives Plant J. 40:725-733.
  • Rao, G. U. et al. 1996. Production of hybrids, amphiploids and backcross progenies between cold-tolerant wild species, Erucastrum abyssinicum and crop brassicas Theor. Appl. Genet. 92:786-790.
  • Rao, G. U. et al. 1996. Production of hybrids, amphiploids and backcross progenies between cold-tolerant wild species, Erucastrum abyssinicum and crop brassicas Theor. Appl. Genet. 92:786-790.
  • Rechinger, K. H., ed. Flora iranica. 1963- (F Iran)
  • Rudloff, E. & Y. Wang 2011. Crambe (Wild Crop Rel Oils) 5:112.
  • Rygulla, W. et al. 2007. Broadening the genetic basis of Verticillium longisporum resistance in Brassica napus by interspecific hybridization (Phytopathology) 97:1391-1396.
  • Rygulla, W. et al. 2007. Broadening the genetic basis of Verticillium longisporum resistance in Brassica napus by interspecific hybridization (Phytopathology) 97:1391-1396.
  • Scheffler, J. A. & P. J. Dale 1994. Opportunities for gene transfer from transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to related species Transgenic Res. 3:263-278.
  • Scheffler, J. A. & P. J. Dale 1994. Opportunities for gene transfer from transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to related species Transgenic Res. 3:263-278.
  • Sharma, B. D. et al., eds. Flora of India. 1993- (F India)
  • Siemonsma, J. S. & Kasem Piluek, eds. 1993. Vegetables (Pl Res SEAs) 8:121.
  • Snowdon, R. et al. 2007. Chapter 7. Brassica oilseeds (Genet Res Chrom Crop) 196-230.
  • Snowdon, R. et al. 2007. Chapter 7. Brassica oilseeds (Genet Res Chrom Crop) 196-230.
  • Song, K. et al. 1988. Brassica taxonomy based on nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). 1. Genome evolution of diploid and amphidiploid species Theor. Appl. Genet. 75:784-794.
  • Song, K. et al. 1988. Brassica taxonomy based on nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). 1. Genome evolution of diploid and amphidiploid species Theor. Appl. Genet. 75:784-794.
  • Song, K. et al. 1988. Brassica taxonomy based on nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). 2. Preliminary analysis of subspecies within B. rapa (syn. campestris) and B. oleracea Theor. Appl. Genet. 76:593-600.
  • Song, K. et al. 1988. Brassica taxonomy based on nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). 2. Preliminary analysis of subspecies within B. rapa (syn. campestris) and B. oleracea Theor. Appl. Genet. 76:593-600.
  • Song, K. et al. 1990. Brassica taxonomy based on nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). 3. Genome relationships in Brassica and related genera and the origin of B. oleracea and B. rapa (syn. campestris) Theor. Appl. Genet. 79:497-506.
  • Song, K. et al. 1990. Brassica taxonomy based on nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). 3. Genome relationships in Brassica and related genera and the origin of B. oleracea and B. rapa (syn. campestris) Theor. Appl. Genet. 79:497-506.
  • Song, K. et al. 1995. Rapid genome change in synthetic polyploids of Brassica and its implications for polyploid evolution Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92:7719-7723.
  • Song, K. et al. 1995. Rapid genome change in synthetic polyploids of Brassica and its implications for polyploid evolution Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92:7719-7723.
  • Stevens, W. D. et al., eds. Flora de Nicaragua. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85(1-3). 2001 (F Nicaragua)
  • Steward, A. N. Manual of vascular plants of the lower Yangtze valley. 1958 (F LowYangtze)
  • Takuno, S. et al. 2010. Assessment of genetic diversity of accessions in Brassicaceae genetic resources by frequency distribution analysis of S haplotypes Theor. Appl. Genet. 120:1129-1138.
  • Takuno, S. et al. 2010. Assessment of genetic diversity of accessions in Brassicaceae genetic resources by frequency distribution analysis of S haplotypes Theor. Appl. Genet. 120:1129-1138.
  • Turrill, W. B. et al., eds. Flora of tropical East Africa. 1952- (F TE Afr)
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. 1964-1980 (F Eur)
  • Velasco, L. et al. 1998. Variability for the fatty acid composition of the seed oil in a germplasm collection of the genus Brassica Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 45:371-382.
  • Vibrans, H., ed. Malezas de México (on-line resource). (Malezas Mex)
  • Walker, E. Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu Islands. 1976 (F Okin)
  • Warwick, S. I. & C. A. Sauder 2005. Phylogeny of tribe Brassiceae (Brassicaceae) based on chloroplast restriction site polymorphisms and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and chloroplast trnL intron sequences Canad. J. Bot. 83:467-483.
  • Warwick, S. I. & C. A. Sauder 2005. Phylogeny of tribe Brassiceae (Brassicaceae) based on chloroplast restriction site polymorphisms and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and chloroplast trnL intron sequences Canad. J. Bot. 83:467-483.
  • Warwick, S. I. & L. D. Black 1991. Molecular systematics of Brassica and allied genera (Subtribe Brassicinae, Brassiceae) - chloroplast genome and cytodeme congruence Theor. Appl. Genet. 82:81-92.
  • Warwick, S. I. & L. D. Black 1991. Molecular systematics of Brassica and allied genera (Subtribe Brassicinae, Brassiceae) - chloroplast genome and cytodeme congruence Theor. Appl. Genet. 82:81-92.
  • Warwick, S. I. et al. 2006. Brassicaceae: Species checklist and database on CD-Rom Pl. Syst. Evol. 259:249-258.
  • Warwick, S. I. et al. 2008. AFLP-based molecular characterization of Brassica rapa and diversity in Canadian spring turnip rape cultivars Pl. Genet. Resources Charact. Util. 6:11-21.
  • Warwick, S. I. et al. 2008. AFLP-based molecular characterization of Brassica rapa and diversity in Canadian spring turnip rape cultivars Pl. Genet. Resources Charact. Util. 6:11-21.
  • Warwick, S. I. et al. 2009. PART III. Interspecific and intergeneric hybridization data (Guide Germ Brassica) 1-91.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). 1994- (F ChinaEng)
  • Yang, Y.-W. et al. 2002. A study of the phylogeny of Brassica rapa, B. nigra, Raphanus sativus, and their related genera using noncoding regions of chloroplast DNA Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 23:268-275.
  • Yang, Y.-W. et al. 2002. A study of the phylogeny of Brassica rapa, B. nigra, Raphanus sativus, and their related genera using noncoding regions of chloroplast DNA Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 23:268-275.
  • Yao, X.-C. et al. 2010. Intra- and intergenomic relationships in interspecific hybrids between Brassica (B. rapa, B. napus) and a wild species B. maurorum as revealed by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) (Euphytica) 173:113-120.
  • Yao, X.-C. et al. 2010. Intra- and intergenomic relationships in interspecific hybrids between Brassica (B. rapa, B. napus) and a wild species B. maurorum as revealed by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) (Euphytica) 173:113-120.
  • Zhao, J. et al. 2005. Genetic relationships within Brassica rapa as inferred from AFLP fingerprints Theor. Appl. Genet. 110:1301-1314.
  • Zhao, J. et al. 2005. Genetic relationships within Brassica rapa as inferred from AFLP fingerprints Theor. Appl. Genet. 110:1301-1314.

Check other web resources for Brassica rapa L. :

Images:

  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image