Taxon: Carum carvi L.

Genus: Carum
Family: Apiaceae (alt.Umbelliferae)
  Subfamily: Apioideae
      Tribe: Careae
Nomen number: 9245
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:263. 1753
Name Verified on: 20-May-1992 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 09-May-2011
Species priority site is: North Central Regional PI Station (NC7)
Accessions: 45 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring (spice fide Ency CNatIn)
  • Bee plants: potential as source of pollen ()
  • Gene sources: primary genetic relative of caraway (based on "recurrent selection" of annual plants, easy to harvest, to increase oil production)
  • Materials: essential oils (used in cosmetics fide Ency CNatIn)
  • Materials: lipids (used in cosmetics fide Ency CNatIn)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide P. K. Mukherjee, pers. comm. 1996; CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant (fide AOSA Hb 25; Global Comp Weeds)

Distributional Range:


  • Africa

    • Northern Africa: Tunisia
  • Asia-Temperate

    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Dagestan; Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia - Ciscaucasia
    • China: China - Hebei, - Gansu, - Shanxi, - Qinghai, - Xinjiang, - Xizang
    • Middle Asia: Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan
    • Mongolia: Mongolia
    • Russian Far East: Russian Federation - Kamchatka
    • Siberia: Russian Federation - Altay; Russian Federation-Eastern Siberia - Eastern Siberia; Russian Federation-Western Siberia - Western Siberia
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan; Iran; Iraq; Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical

    • Indian Subcontinent: Bhutan; India; Nepal; Pakistan
  • Europe

    • East Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Ukraine
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Finland; Norway; Svalbard and Jan Mayen
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Italy; Macedonia; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Spain

  • Cultivated:

    . widely cult. in temperate regions


  • Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource). (AgroAtlas)
  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin). 2009 (Vara kulturvaxt namn)
  • Bisset, N. G., ed. Herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals. A handbook for practice on a scientific basis. 1994 (Herbal Drugs)
  • Blumenthal, M., ed. The complete German Commission E monographs: therapeutic guide to herbal medicines. 1998 (German CommE Monog)
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae. 1959- (F China)
  • Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. 1965-1988 (F Turk)
  • Demilly, D. et al. Liste alphabétique des principales espèces de plantes cultivées et de mauvaises herbes. Noms latins et noms français, ed. 6. 1996 (L Noms French ed6)
  • Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  • Encke, F. et al. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage. 1984 (Zander ed13)
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource). (EuroMed Plantbase)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Foster, S. & J. A. Duke A field guide to medicinal plants: Eastern/Central North America, 2nd ed. 2000 (EastC Med Pl)
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  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. Flora SSSR. 1934-1964 (F USSR)
  • Langenberger, M. W. & A. R. Davis 2002. Honey bee pollen foraging in relation to flowering phenology of biennial caraway (Carum carvi L.) Canad. J. Pl. Sci. 82:203-215.
  • Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2. 1996 (Ency CNatIn)
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  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Moerman, D. Native American ethnobotany, ed. 5. 1998 (Nat Amer Ethnobot)
  • Mukherjee, P. K. 1996. pers. comm. (pers. comm.)
  • Mukherjee, P. K. & L. Constance Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) of India. 1993 (Umbell India)
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. Flora of [West] Pakistan. 1970- (F Pak)
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  • Randall, R. P. A global compendium of weeds. 2002 (Global Comp Weeds)
  • Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
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  • van Roon, E. & H. J. Bleijenberg 1964. Breeding caraway for non-shattering seed (Euphytica) 13:281-293.
  • Van Wyk, B.-E. & M. Wink Medicinal plants of the world. 2004 (Med Pl World)
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  • Zakharova, E. A. et al. 2012. Redefined generic limits of Carum (Umbelliferae, Apioideae) and new systematic placement of some of its taxa (Willdenowia) 42:149-168.


Check other web resources for Carum carvi L. :

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.


  • Fruits: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image