Taxon: Ceratonia siliqua L.

Genus: Ceratonia
Family: Fabaceae (alt.Leguminosae)
  Subfamily: Caesalpinioideae
      Tribe: Caesalpinieae
Nomen number: 9918
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:1026. 1753
Name Verified on: 16-Feb-1988 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 23-Aug-1994
Species priority site is: Natl. Germplasm Repository - Miami (MIA)
Accessions: 136 in National Plant Germplasm System

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring (fide Ency CNatIn)
  • Food additives: sweetener (fide Batlle & Tous 1997)
  • Food additives: thickening agent (fide Batlle & Tous 1997)
  • Environmental: ornamental (fide Batlle & Tous 1997)
  • Environmental: shade/shelter (fide Batlle & Tous 1997)
  • Human food: beverage base (seeds used as a substitute for coffee & chocolate fide Edible HC; Ency CNatIn)
  • Animal food: fodder (fide Batlle & Tous 1997)
  • Fuels: charcoal (fide Batlle & Tous 1997)
  • Fuels: fuelwood (fide Batlle & Tous 1997)
  • Materials: alcohol (carob bean gum for numerous uses fide Batlle & Tous 1997)
  • Materials: gum/resin (carob bean gum for numerous uses fide Batlle & Tous 1997)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)

Distributional Range:


    . exact native range obscure


  • Africa

    • Macaronesia: Spain - Canary Islands
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia
  • Asia-Temperate

    • Western Asia: Cyprus; Israel; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
  • Europe

    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Former Yugoslavia; Greece; Italy
    • Southwestern Europe: France; Spain

  • Naturalized:

    . widely natzd.


    . widely cult.


  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin). 2009 (Vara kulturvaxt namn)
  • Batlle, I. & J. Tous 1997. Carob tree. Ceratonia siliqua L. (Prom Underused Crops) 17:1-92.
  • Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. 1965-1988 (F Turk)
  • Duke, J. A. Handbook of legumes of world economic importance. 1981 (Leg WorldEc)
  • Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  • Eriksson, O. et al. Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, ed. 2. 1979 (L Macar ed2)
  • Euro+Med Editorial Committee Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource). (EuroMed Plantbase)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. (pers. comm.)
  • Hackett, C. & J. Carolane Edible Horticultural Crops. 1982 (Edible HC)
  • Isely, D. 1975. Leguminosae of the United States: II. Subfamily Caesalpinioideae Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 25(2):134.
  • Izquierdo Z., I. et al., eds. Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias: hongos, plantas y animales terrestres. 2004 (L Canarias)
  • Jahandiez, E. & R. Maire Catalogue des plantes du Maroc. 1931-1941 (L Maroc)
  • Kartesz, J. T. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 1994 (L US Can ed2)
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. Flora SSSR. 1934-1964 (F USSR)
  • Kunkel, G. Plants for human consumption. 1984 (L Edible Pl)
  • La Malfa, S. et al. 2014. Genetic diversity revealed by EST-SSR markers in carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 55:205-211.
  • Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2. 1996 (Ency CNatIn) 123.
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. 1976 (Hortus 3)
  • Mabberley, D. J. The plant-book: a portable dictionary of the vascular plants, ed. 2. 1997 (Pl Book)
  • Magness, J. R. et al. Food and feed crops of the United States. IR Bull. 1. 1971 (Crops US)
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Meikle, R. D. Flora of Cyprus. 1977-1985 (F Cyprus)
  • Mouterde, P. Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie. 1966- (F Liban)
  • National Academy of Sciences Tropical legumes: resources for the future. 1979 (Trop Leg)
  • Pignatti, S. Flora d'Italia. 1982 (F Ital)
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
  • Pottier-Alapetite, G. Flore de la Tunisie: Angiospermes-Dicotyledones. 1979-1981 (F Tunis)
  • Quézel, P. & S. Santa Nouvelle flore de l'Algerie. 1962-1963 (F Alger)
  • Rechinger, K. H., ed. Flora iranica. 1963- (F Iran)
  • Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  • Smythies, B. E. Flora of Spain and the Balearic Islands: checklist of vascular plants. Englera 3:1-882. 1984-1986 (L Spain)
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. 1964-1980 (F Eur)
  • Wiersema, J. H. & B. León World economic plants: a standard reference (on-line edition) [medicinal plants only]. (World Econ Pl Med)
  • Wood, J. R. I. A handbook of the flora of Yemen. 1997 (F Yemen)
  • Zohary, M. & N. Feinbrun-Dothan Flora palaestina. 1966- (F Palest)

Check other web resources for Ceratonia siliqua L. :

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • ILDIS: International Legume Database & Information Service
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.