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Taxon: Malus ×asiatica Nakai

Genus: Malus
Section: Malus
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Amygdaloideae
Tribe: Maleae
Subtribe: Malinae
Nomen number: 104653
Place of publication: J. Matsumura, Icon. pl. koisik. 3:19, t. 155. 1915
Link to protologue:
Comment: [may be cultigen derived from M. sieversii × M. baccata]
Name Verified on: 15-Jun-2011 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 49 (20 active, 16 available) in National Plant Germplasm System

Autonyms (not in current use), synonyms and invalid designations:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym, I invalid designation)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Human food: fruit (in China) fruit; fruit

Distributional Range:


    • CHINA: China
    • EASTERN ASIA: Korea


  1. Büttner, R. et al. 2004. Gene banks for the preservation of wild apple genetic resources. J. Fruit Ornam. Pl. Res. 12:101.
  2. Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959-. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae.
  3. Deng, G. T. et al. 1995. Distribution and use of Malus in Hengduan Mountain region, southwest China. Pl. Genet. Resources Newslett. 102:35.
  4. Forest Experimental Station, Korea. 1966. Illustrated woody plants of Korea.
  5. Fu, Y. C. et al. 1977-. Flora intramongolica.
  6. Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6
  7. Harris, S. A. et al. 2002. Genetic clues to the origin of the apple. Trends Genet. 18:426-430. Note: not as hybrid
  8. Hokanson, S. C. et al. 2001. Microsatellite (SSR) variation in a collection of Malus (apple) species and hybrids. Euphytica 118:281-294. Note: Netherlands journal of plant breeding
  9. Jiangsu Inst. Bot., ed. v. 1; Shan. R. H., ed. v. 2. 1977-1982. Jiangsu Zhiwuzhi (Flora of Jiangsu).
  10. Pemberton, R. W. & N. S. Lee. 1996. Wild food plants in South Korea; market presence, new crops, and exports to the United States. Econ. Bot. 50:60.
  11. Ponomarenko, V. V. 1991. On a little known species Malus asiatica (Rosaceae). Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 76:719. Note: = Malus domestica var. asiatica (Nakai) Ponomar.
  12. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  13. Robinson, J. P. et al. 2001. Taxonomy of the genus Malus Mill. (Rosaceae) with emphasis on the cultivated apple, Malus domestica Borkh.. Pl. Syst. Evol. 226:35-58. Note: this study used one USDA accession (PI 594099)
  14. Tai Hyun Chung. 1965. Illustrated encyclopedia of fauna & flora of Korea, vol. 5, Tracheophyta.
  15. Velasco, R. et al. 2010. The genome of the domesticated apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.). Nat. Genet. 42:833-841. Note: this study included Malus × asiatica that based on genetic distances was resolved among accessions of "M. × domestica" and M. sieversii, the latter its putative parental species
  16. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994-. Flora of China (English edition). Note: not as hybrid
  17. Yu, T. T. & C. L. Yen. 1956. Study on the Chinese species of the genus Malus Miller. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 5:109.
  18. Zhou, Z.-Q. & Y. N. Li. 2000. The RAPD evidence for the phylogenetic relationship of the closely related species of cultivated apple. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 47:353-357.
  19. Zhou, Z.-Q. 1999. The apple genetic resources in China: the wild species and their distributions, informative characterists and utilisation. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 46:599-609.

Check other web resources for Malus ×asiatica Nakai :

  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=104653. Accessed 4 June 2020.