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Taxon: Malus mandshurica (Maxim.) Kom. ex Skvortsov

Genus: Malus
Section: Gymnomeles
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Amygdaloideae
Tribe: Maleae
Subtribe: Malinae
Nomen number: 104672
Place of publication: Izv. Glavn. Bot. Sada S.S.S.R. 24:146. 1925 "manshurica" (Tipi Rastit. Iuzhno-Ussur. Kraia 93. 1917, nom. nud.; Rastit. Iuzhno-Ussur. Kraia 75. 1923)
Link to protologue:
Comment: authorship verified from original literature
Name Verified on: 28-Jun-2011 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 24 (5 active, 3 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Autonyms (not in current use), synonyms and invalid designations:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym, I invalid designation)

Common names:

  • Manchurian crab apple  (Source: Websters Dict) - English
  • ezo-no-ko-ringo  (Source: F Japan) - Japanese Rōmaji
  • manchurisk bärapel  (Source: Kulturvaxtdatabas) - Swedish
  • mao shan jing zi  (Source: F ChinaEng) - Transcribed Chinese
  • jablonja man'čžurskaja  (Source: Mansf Ency) - Transliterated Russian

Distributional Range:


    • RUSSIAN FAR EAST: Russian Federation [Primorye, Sakhalin]
    • CHINA: China [Gansu Sheng, Hebei Sheng, Heilongjiang Sheng, Jilin Sheng, Liaoning Sheng, Nei Mongol Zizhiqu, Shaanxi Sheng, Shanxi Sheng]
    • EASTERN ASIA: Japan, [Hokkaidô, Honshu] Korea


  1. Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource). URL: http://www.agroatlas.ru/en/content/related/Malus_mandshurica/ target='_blank'
  2. Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959-. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae.
  3. Czerepanov, S. K. 1995. Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (the former USSR) Cambridge University Press.
  4. Englert, J. M. et al. 1999-. USDA-NRCS Improved conservation plant materials released by NRCS and cooperators
  5. Forest Experimental Station, Korea. 1966. Illustrated woody plants of Korea. Note: = Malus baccata var. mandshurica (Maxim.) C. K. Schneid.
  6. Hancock, J. F. et al. 2008. Chapter 1. Apples. Temperate fruit crop breeding: germplasm to genomics 1-37.
  7. Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6
  8. Kitagawa, M. 1979. Neo-lineamenta florae Manshuricae. Note: = Malus baccata var. mandshurica (Maxim.) C. K. Schneid.
  9. Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934-1964. Flora SSSR. Note: lists as "Malus manshurica"
  10. Krüssmann, G. 1984. Manual of cultivated broad-leaved trees and shrubs (English translation of Handbuch der Laubgehölze. 1976) Note: = Malus baccata var. mandshurica (Maxim.) C. K. Schneid.
  11. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third. Note: = Malus baccata var. mandshurica (Maxim.) C. K. Schneid.
  12. Likhonos, F. D. 1974. A survey of the species in the genus Malus Mill.. Trudy Prikl. Bot. 52(3):28. Note: = Malus baccata subsp. mandshurica (Maxim.) Likhonos
  13. Ponomarenko, V. V. 1972. Taxonomic position of Malus manshurica (Maxim.) Kom.. Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 57(10):1221-31.
  14. Ponomarenko, V. V. 1977. On the specific composition of wild growing apple trees in the USSR and centers of their genetic diversity. Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 62(6):820-831.
  15. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  16. Robinson, J. P. et al. 2001. Taxonomy of the genus Malus Mill. (Rosaceae) with emphasis on the cultivated apple, Malus domestica Borkh.. Pl. Syst. Evol. 226:35-58.
  17. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994-. Flora of China (English edition).
  18. Zhou, Z.-Q. 1999. The apple genetic resources in China: the wild species and their distributions, informative characterists and utilisation. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 46:603.
  19. 1961. Webster's third new international dictionary.

Check other web resources for Malus mandshurica (Maxim.) Kom. ex Skvortsov :

  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=104672. Accessed 3 June 2020.