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Taxon: Malus domestica (Suckow) Borkh.

Genus: Malus
Section: Malus
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Amygdaloideae
Tribe: Maleae
Subtribe: Malinae
Nomen number: 104681
Place of publication: Theor. prakt. Handb. Forstbot. 2:1272. 1803, nom. cons.
Link to protologue:
  • • fide Telopea 9:427. 2001, when published this was an illegitimate, superfluous name (Shenzhen ICN Art. 52) for Malus communis Desf. (1798), i.e. based on the same type (that of Pyrus malus L.)
  • • conserved (nom. cons.) against the heterotypic synonyms (Shenzhen ICN Art. 14.4 & App. IV) M. communis, M. pumila, and five other names
Name Verified on: 21-Jun-2011 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 2420 (1498 active, 1288 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Autonyms (not in current use), synonyms and invalid designations:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym, I invalid designation)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Fuels: fuelwood
  • Human food: fruit
  • Medicines:
  • Social:
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (as Malus sylvestris)

Distributional Range:

    Cultivated (also cult.)

    Naturalized (sometimes natzd.)


  1. Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource). URL: http://www.agroatlas.ru/en/content/cultural/Malus_domestica_K/ target='_blank'
  2. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  3. Applequist, W. L. 2014. Report of the Nomenclature Committee for Vascular Plants: 66. Taxon 63:1359. Note: proposal not recommended
  4. Batra, L. R. 1995. Names of Japanese plants sorted by their Japanese names in Romanized Katakana and scientific nomenclature Note: = Malus pumila var. dulcissima
  5. Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959-. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae. Note: = Malus pumila Mill.
  6. Cornille, A. et al. 2012. New insight into the history of domesticated apple: secondary contribution of the European wild apple to the genome of cultivated varieties. PLoS Genet. 8(5):e1002703. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002703 Note: supports independent status from other apple species
  7. Cornille, A. et al. 2015. The domestication and evolutionary ecology of apples. Trends Genet. 30:57-65. Note: hybridization played a role in the evolution of cultivated apple
  8. Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs
  9. Encke, F. et al. 1993. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 14. Auflage
  10. Erhardt, W. et al. 2002. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 17. Auflage
  11. Erhardt, W. et al. 2008. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen
  12. Facciola, S. 1990. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants Kampong Publications. Note: = Malus pumila Mill.
  13. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Malus+domestica&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  14. Gilbert, L. 1998. pers. comm. Note: re. common names
  15. Gross, B. L. et al. 2012. Identification of interspecific hybrids among domesticated apple and its wild relatives. Tree Genet. Genomes 8:1223-1235. Note: supports independent status from other apple species
  16. Hanelt, P., ed. 2001. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6
  17. Harris, S. A. et al. 2002. Genetic clues to the origin of the apple. Trends Genet. 18:426-430.
  18. Hokanson, S. C. et al. 2001. Microsatellite (SSR) variation in a collection of Malus (apple) species and hybrids. Euphytica 118:281-294. Note: = Malus × domestica
  19. Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening Note: = Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.
  20. Joseph, R. 2009. Rosh Hashanah: it's crunch time for apples.
  21. Kartesz, J. T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Note: lists as Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh. (= M. pumila Mill.)
  22. Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934-1964. Flora SSSR.
  23. Korban, S. S. & R. M. Skirvan. 1984. Nomenclature of the cultivated apple. HortScience 19:177-180. Note: = Malus ×domestica Borkh.
  24. León, B. 1996. pers. comm. Note: re. Spanish common names
  25. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third. Note: = Malus pumila Mill.
  26. Likhonos, F. D. 1974. A survey of the species in the genus Malus Mill.. Trudy Prikl. Bot. 52(3):29.
  27. Mabberley, D. J. et al. 2001. The name of the apple. Telopea 9:427. Note: indicates this to be a nom. superfl., as the earlier Malus communis Desf. (1798), based on the same type (that of Pyrus malus L.), should have been adopted
  28. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2
  29. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2 American Herbal Products Association, Silver Spring, Maryland.
  30. Nikiforova, S. V. et al. 2013. Phylogenetic analysis of 47 chloroplast genomes clarifies the contribution of wild species to the domesticated apple maternal line. Molec. Biol. Evol. 30:1751-1760.
  31. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  32. Ponomarenko, V. V. 1980. The present status of the problem of origin of Malus domestica Borkh.. Trudy Prikl. Bot. 67(1):11-21. Note: originated from Malus sieversii in Central Asia
  33. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  34. Qian, G.-Z. et al. 2010. (1933) Proposal to conserve the name Malus domestica against M. pumila, M. communis, M. frutescens, and Pyrus dioica (Rosaceae). Taxon 59:650-652.
  35. Rechinger, K. H., ed. 1963-. Flora iranica.
  36. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants
  37. Reichel, S. 1998. pers. comm. Note: re. German common names
  38. Robinson, J. P. et al. 2001. Taxonomy of the genus Malus Mill. (Rosaceae) with emphasis on the cultivated apple, Malus domestica Borkh.. Pl. Syst. Evol. 226:35-58.
  39. Spengler, R. N. 2019. Origins of the apple: the role of megafaunal mutualism in the domestication of Malus and rosaceous trees. Front. Plant Sci. 10: 617. Pages1-18.
  40. Steyermark, J. A. 1977. Flora of Missouri. Note: = Pyrus malus
  41. Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964-1980. Flora europaea.
  42. Verheij, E. W. M. & R. E. Coronel, eds. 1991. Edible fruits and nuts. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 2:200.
  43. Walters, S. M. et al., eds. 1986-2000. European garden flora. Note: = Malus sylvestris subsp. mitis (Wallr.) Mansf.
  44. Zhou, Z.-Q. 1999. The apple genetic resources in China: the wild species and their distributions, informative characterists and utilisation. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 46:605.

Check other web resources for Malus domestica (Suckow) Borkh. :

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=104681. Accessed 14 July 2020.