Taxon: Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav. subsp. sativa (Mill.) Thell.

Genus: Eruca
Family: Brassicaceae (alt.Cruciferae)
Tribe: Brassiceae
Nomen number: 104951
Place of publication: G. Hegi, Ill. Fl. Mitt._Eur. 4(1):201. 1918
Link to protologue:
Name Verified on: 01-Apr-2010 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 01-Apr-2010
Species priority site is: North Central Regional PI Station (NC7)
Accessions: 239 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)


Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Food additives: flavoring (fide Genet Res Charact Ut 5:143. 2007, as spice in sauces or prepared mustard)
  • Human food: oil/fat (seeds are source of Jamba oil or Taramira oil fide Use Pl WT Afr, as E. sativa)
  • Human food: vegetable (fide Genet Res Charact Ut 5:143. 2007, as pungent or non-pungent vegetable for salads)
  • Animal food: fodder (as E. sativa)
  • Gene sources: primary genetic relative of arugula (fide Genet Res Crop Evol DOI 10.1007/s10722-011-9738-x)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of cabbage/kale (fide Euphytica 158:215. 2007 as E. vesicaria, this review cites studies reporting hybrids with Brassica oleracea)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of mustard (fide Euphytica 158:215. 2007 as E. vesicaria, this review cites one study reporting hybrids with Brassica juncea)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of radish (based on records of hybrid formation with Raphanus sativus fide Guide Germ Brassica)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of rape (fide Euphytica 158:215. 2007 as E. vesicaria, this review cites studies reporting hybrids with Brassica napus)
  • Gene sources: tertiary genetic relative of turnip (fide Biol Breed Crucifer 264. 2009 as E. sativa, this review cites a study reporting sexual hybrids with Brassica rapa)
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant (fide F Iran, as E. sativa; Cruc NAmer)

Distributional Range:


    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Algeria (n.), Egypt (n.), Libya (n.), Morocco, Tunisia

    • WESTERN ASIA: Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey
    • CAUCASUS: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russian Federation, [Dagestan] Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia [Ciscaucasia]
    • MIDDLE ASIA: Turkmenistan
    • MONGOLIA: Mongolia
    • CHINA: China [Gansu, Guangdong, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Nei Monggol, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang]


    • EASTERN EUROPE: Ukraine [Krym]
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Bulgaria, Greece (incl. Crete), Italy, [Sardinia, Sicily] Romania (s.), Serbia (e.)
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France (s. & Corsica), Portugal, Spain (incl. Baleares)


    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia
    • NORTHEAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan
    • WEST TROPICAL AFRICA: Mali, Mauritania, Niger

    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: India (n. & c.), Pakistan

    • Europe (s.)

    Northern America
    • Canada, United States


    • MACARONESIA: Portugal, [Madeira Islands] Spain [Canary Islands]
    • SOUTHERN AFRICA: South Africa

    • ARABIAN PENINSULA: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen
    • SIBERIA: Russian Federation-Eastern Siberia, [Eastern Siberia] Russian Federation-Western Siberia [Western Siberia]
    • EASTERN ASIA: Japan [Honshu]


    • AUSTRALIA: Australia
    • NEW ZEALAND: New Zealand

    • NORTHERN EUROPE: Norway (s.), Sweden (s.)
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Austria, Germany, Hungary, Switzerland
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russian Federation-European part, [European part (w.)] Ukraine
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia

    Northern America
    • Canada, Mexico, United States

    Southern America
    • WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA: Ecuador [Loja]
    • SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: Argentina, Chile

    Other (exact native range obscure)


  1. PROTABASE, the information base of PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) (on-line resource). (PROTA4U)
  2. Ali, S. I. & S. M. H. Jafri, eds. Flora of Libya. (F Libya)
  3. Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. (F Turk)
  4. Eriksson, O. et al. Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, ed. 2. (L Macar ed2)
  5. FitzJohn, R. G. et al. 2007. Hybridisation within Brassica and allied genera: evaluation of potential for transgene escape (Euphytica) 158:209-230.
  6. FNA Editorial Committee Flora of North America. (F NAmer)
  7. Girija, T. & Tabish Flowers of India (on-line resource). (Flow India)
  8. Greuter, W. et al., eds. Med-Checklist. (L Medit)
  9. Hedberg, I. & S. Edwards Flora of Ethiopia. 1989- (and Eritrea. 2000) (F Ethiop)
  10. Instituto de Botánica Darwinion Flora del Conosur. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares. (F ConoSur)
  11. Iwatsuki, K. et al. Flora of Japan. (F Japan)
  12. Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75. 1999 (L Ecuador)
  13. Krasnoborov, I. M., ed. Flora of Siberia (English translation). 2000- (F Siberia)
  14. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  15. Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. Flora of [West] Pakistan. (F Pak)
  16. Pignone, D. & C. Gómez-Campo 2011. Chapter 8. Eruca (Wild Crop Rel Oils) 145-160.
  17. Qiong, H. et al. 2009. Chapter 13. Introgression of genes from wild crucifers (Biol Breed Crucifer) 261-308.
  18. Rechinger, K. H., ed. Flora iranica. (F Iran)
  19. Rollins, R. C. The Cruciferae of continental North America. 1993 (Cruc NAmer)
  20. Rollins, R. C. & I. A. Al-Shehbaz 1986. Weeds of south-west Asia in North America with special reference to the Cruciferae Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 89B:294.
  21. Sharma, B. D. et al., eds. Flora of India. (F India)
  22. Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. (F Eur)
  23. van Treuren, R. et al. 2012. Genetic resources collections of leafy vegetables (lettuce, spinach, chicory, artichoke, asparagus, lamb's lettuce, rhubarb and rocket salad): composition and gaps Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 59:981-997.
  24. Warwick, S. I. 1995. New taxonomic views within Eruca and Diplotaxis genera in the light of hybridization and molecular findings. In S. Padulosi, ed., Rocket Genetic Resources Network. Report of the first meeting, Lisbon, Portugal Rocket Genet. Res. Netw. 22-35.
  25. Warwick, S. I. et al. 2006. Brassicaceae: Species checklist and database on CD-Rom Pl. Syst. Evol. 259:249-258.
  26. Warwick, S. I. et al. 2007. Genetic variation in Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav. Pl. Genet. Resources Charact. Util. 5:142-153.
  27. Warwick, S. I. et al. 2009. PART III. Interspecific and intergeneric hybridization data (Guide Germ Brassica) 1-91.
  28. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). (F ChinaEng)

Check other web resources for Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav. subsp. sativa (Mill.) Thell. :

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: Accessed 17 July 2018.