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Taxon: Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.

 
Genus: Citrullus
Family: Cucurbitaceae
Tribe: Benincaseae
Nomen number: 10674
Place of publication: Linnaea 12:414. 1838
Link to protologue:
Name Verified on: 10-May-1995 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 44 (23 active, 22 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Medicines: folklore (fide New Crops Food Ind 147. 1989) folklore; folklore; folklore
  • Vertebrate poisons:
  • Weed:

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Africa
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia
    • NORTHEAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Chad, Ethiopia, Somalia, Yemen [Socotra]
    • EAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Kenya
    • WEST TROPICAL AFRICA: Mali

    Asia-Temperate
    • ARABIAN PENINSULA: Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Yemen
    • WESTERN ASIA: Afghanistan, Cyprus, Egypt, [Sinai] Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey (s.)

    Asia-Tropical
    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: India, [Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh] Pakistan, Sri Lanka
    • INDO-CHINA: Myanmar

    Europe
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Greece, Italy [Sicilia]
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: Spain


    Cultivated (widely cult. in s.w. Asia and n. Africa)

    Naturalized

    Australasia
    • AUSTRALIA: Australia


References:

  1. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  2. Botanical Society of the British Isles. BSBI taxon database (on-line resource).
  3. Chomicki, G. & S. S. Renner. 2015. Watermelon origin solved with molecular phylogenetics including Linnaean material: another example of museonomics. New Phytol. 205:526-532. Note: it rejects Citrullus colocynthis "as a close relative, much less progenitor ... of the watermelon"
  4. CIBA-GEIGY, Basel, Switzerland. Documenta CIBA-GEIGY (Grass weeds 1. 1980, 2. 1981; Monocot weeds 3. 1982; Dicot weeds 1. 1988) Note: four books on weeds worldwide in scope
  5. Dane, F. & P. Lang. 2004. Sequence variation at cpDNA regions of watermelon and related wild species: implications for the evolution of Citrullus haplotypes. Amer. J. Bot. 91:1922-1929.
  6. Dane, F. et al. 2007. Phylogeography of the bitter apple, Citrullus colocynthis. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 54:327-336.
  7. Davis, P. H., ed. 1965-1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  8. Decker-Walters, D. S. 1999. Cucurbit, Sanskrit, and the Indo-Aryas. Econ. Bot. 53:102.
  9. Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs
  10. Duke, J. A. 1985. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs
  11. Erhardt, W. et al. 2002. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 17. Auflage
  12. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Citrullus+colocynthis&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  13. Greuter, W. et al., eds. 1984-. Med-Checklist.
  14. Hansen, A. & P. Sunding. 1993. Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, ed. 4. Sommerfeltia vol. 17.
  15. Hedberg, I. & S. Edwards. 1989-. Flora of Ethiopia Note: Eritrea added in 2000
  16. Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening
  17. Kirkbride, J. H., Jr. 1993. Biosystematic monograph of the genus Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae) Note: mentions
  18. Levi, A. et al. 2001. Genetic diversity among watermelon (Citrullus lanatus and Citrullus colocynthis) accessions. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 48:559-566.
  19. Levi, A. et al. 2002. A genetic linkage map for watermelon derived from a testcross population: (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides × C. lanatus var. lanatus. Theor. Appl. Genet. 105:555-563.
  20. Levi, A. et al. 2005. Analysis based on RAPD and ISSR markers reveals closer similarities among Citrullus and Cucumis species than with Praecitrullus fistulosus (Stocks) Pangalo. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 52:465-472.
  21. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2 American Herbal Products Association, Silver Spring, Maryland.
  22. Migahid, A. M. 1988-1990. Flora of Saudi Arabia, ed. 3.
  23. Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. 1970-. Flora of [West] Pakistan.
  24. Navot, N. et al. 1990. Linkage relationships of genes affecting bitterness and flesh color in watermelon. J. Heredity 81:162-165. Note: this study examined plants derived from crosses between a cultivar of Citrullus lanatus × C. colocynthis and parents, and selfed pollinated plants derived from crosses between C. colocynthis × C. ecirrhosus
  25. Nesom, G. L. 2011. New state records for Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) outside of cultivation in the USA. Phytoneuron 2011-1:1-7. Note: naturalized in California
  26. Norton, J. et al. 2009. Illustrated checklist of the flora of Qatar.
  27. Parsons, W. T. & E. G. Cuthbertson. 1992. Noxious weeds of Australia Inkata Press, Melbourne, Australia.
  28. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  29. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  30. Rechinger, K. H., ed. 1963-. Flora iranica.
  31. Reddy, U. K. et al. 2013. Cytomolecular characterization of rDNA distribution in various Citrullus species using fluorescent in situ hybridization. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 60:2091-2100.
  32. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants
  33. Renner, S. S. & A. K. Pandey. 2013. The Cucurbitaceae of India: accepted names, synonyms, geographic distribution, and information on images and DNA sequences. PhytoKeys 20:62.
  34. The Hebew University of Jerusalem. Flora of Israel Online (on-line resource).
  35. Thulin, M., ed. 1993-. Flora of Somalia.
  36. Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest. 1966-. Flora of Iraq.
  37. Turrill, W. B. et al., eds. 1952-. Flora of tropical East Africa.
  38. Wickens, G. E. et al., eds. 1989. New crops for food and industry 147.
  39. Wood, J. R. I. 1997. A handbook of the Yemen flora.
  40. Zohary, M. & N. Feinbrun-Dothan. 1966-. Flora palaestina.

Check other web resources for Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. :

  • AVH: Australia's Virtual Herbarium
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Images:

  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=10674. Accessed 20 November 2019.