Taxon: Cyperus esculentus L.

Genus: Cyperus
Family: Cyperaceae
Subfamily: Cyperoideae
Tribe: Cypereae
Nomen number: 12901
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:45. 1753
Link to protologue:
Name Verified on: 10-Dec-2009 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 09-May-2011
Species priority site is: Arctic and Subarctic Plant Gene Bank (PALM)
Accessions: 0 in National Plant Germplasm System (GoogleMap)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: erosion control (fide F ChinaEng)
  • Environmental: ornamental (fide Dict Gard)
  • Human food: beverage base (tubers fide Food Feed Crops US)
  • Human food: oil/fat (fide F ChinaEng)
  • Human food: vegetable (tubers fide Food Feed Crops US)
  • Animal food: forage (fide Kew Bull 56:292. 2001)
  • Materials: lipids (fide F ChinaEng)
  • Medicines: folklore (fide Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Weed: potential seed contaminant (fide F LAnt; Weed CIBA; Syst Bot 20:461. 1995)

Distributional Range:


  • Africa

    • East Tropical Africa: Kenya ; Tanzania ; Uganda
    • Macaronesia: Cape Verde ; Portugal Azores, Madeira Islands; Spain Canary Islands
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Chad ; Eritrea ; Ethiopia ; Somalia
    • Northern Africa: Algeria ; Egypt ; Libya
    • South Tropical Africa: Angola
    • Southern Africa: Botswana ; Lesotho ; Namibia ; South Africa Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West, Northern Cape, Western Cape; Swaziland
    • West Tropical Africa: Benin ; Burkina Faso ; Cote D'Ivoire ; Gambia ; Ghana ; Guinea ; Guinea-Bissau ; Liberia ; Niger ; Nigeria ; Senegal ; Sierra Leone ; Togo
    • West-Central Tropical Africa: Burundi ; Cameroon ; Central African Republic ; Congo ; Equatorial Guinea ; Gabon ; Rwanda ; Zaire
    • Western Indian Ocean: Comoros ; Madagascar ; Mauritius
  • Asia-Temperate

    • Arabian Peninsula: Yemen
    • Caucasus: Azerbaijan
    • Western Asia: Afghanistan ; Iran ; Iraq ; Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical

    • Indian Subcontinent: India ; Nepal ; Pakistan
    • Indo-China: Vietnam
    • Malesia: Indonesia Java
  • Europe

    • Southeastern Europe: Albania ; Bulgaria ; Greece ; Italy
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal
  • Northern America

    • Eastern Canada: Canada New Brunswick, Ontario, Quebec
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia
    • Northern Mexico: Mexico Baja Norte, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas
    • Northwestern U.S.A.: United States Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, Washington
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States New Mexico, Texas
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, District of Columbia
    • Southern Mexico: Mexico Aguascalientes, Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, Federal District, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatan
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah
    • Western Canada: Canada British Columbia
  • Southern America

    • Brazil: Brazil
    • Caribbean: Aruba ; Bermuda ; Cuba ; Jamaica ; Martinique ; Netherlands Antilles ; Puerto Rico ; Trinidad and Tobago
    • Central America: Belize ; Costa Rica ; Panama
    • Northern South America: Venezuela
    • Southern South America: Argentina ; Paraguay ; Uruguay
    • Western South America: Bolivia ; Colombia ; Ecuador ; Peru

  • Naturalized

  • Africa

    • Middle Atlantic Ocean: St. Helena
  • Asia-Temperate

    • China: China Shandong
    • Eastern Asia: Taiwan
  • Australasia

    • Australia: Australia New South Wales, Queensland
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • Europe

    • Eastern Europe: Ukraine
  • Pacific

    • North-Central Pacific: United States Hawaii

  • Cultivated


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  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource on 2012 (Kulturvaxtdatabas)
  • Allan, H. H. B. et al. Flora of New Zealand. (F NZeal)
  • Boulos, L. Flora of Egypt checklist. (L Egypt)
  • Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45. 1993 (L Peru)
  • Burkill, H. M. The useful plants of west tropical Africa. (Use Pl WT Afr)
  • CIBA-GEIGY, Basel, Switzerland Documenta CIBA-GEIGY (Grass weeds 1. 1980, 2. 1981; Monocot weeds 3. 1982; Dicot weeds 1. 1988) (Weed CIBA)
  • Correa, J. E. & H. Y. Bernal 1991. Especies vegetales promisorias de los paises del Convenio Andres Bello. (Esp Veg Prom) 6:310-337.
  • Correll, D. S. & H. B. Correll Flora of the Bahama archipelago. (F Bahamas)
  • Davidse, G. et al., eds. Flora mesoamericana. (F Mesoamer)
  • Duke, J. A. Handbook of Nuts. CRC Press. 1989 (Handb Nuts)
  • Erhardt, W. et al. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen. 2008 (Zander Ency)
  • Flach, M. & F. Rumawas, eds. 1996. Plants yielding non-seed carbohydrates (Pl Res SEAs) 9:78-82.
  • FNA Editorial Committee Flora of North America. (F NAmer)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  • Foreman, D. B. & N. G. Walsh Flora of Victoria. (F Victoria)
  • Germishuizen, G. & N. L. Meyer, eds. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14. 2003 (Pl SAfr ed2)
  • Ghazanfar, S. A. An annotated catalogue of the vascular plants of Oman. Scripta Botanica Belgica 2. 1992 (L Oman)
  • Govaerts, R. & D. A. Simpson World checklist of Cyperaceae, sedges. 2007 (L Cyperaceae)
  • Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. (pers. comm.)
  • Haines, R. W. & K. A. Lye Sedges and rushes of East Africa. 1983 (Sedge EAfr)
  • Hara, H. et al. An enumeration of the flowering plants of Nepal. (L Nepal)
  • Harden, G. J., ed. Flora of New South Wales. (F NSWales)
  • Hedberg, I. & S. Edwards Flora of Ethiopia. 1989- (and Eritrea. 2000) (F Ethiop)
  • Hnatiuk, R. J. Census of Australian vascular plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series No. 11. (L Aust)
  • Howard, R. Flora of the lesser Antilles. (F LAnt)
  • Huxley, A., ed. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 1992 (Dict Gard)
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75. 1999 (L Ecuador)
  • Keay, R. W. J. & F. N. Hepper Flora of west tropical Africa, ed. 2. (F WT Afr)
  • Lazarides, M. & B. Hince CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia. 1993 (Econ Pl Aust)
  • Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. (Hortus 3)
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
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  • Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants (Kulturpflanze) 34:95.
  • Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck A California flora. (F CalifMunz)
  • Pascual, B. et al. 2001. Chufa ( L. var. sativus Boeck.): an unconventional crop Econ. Bot. 54:439-448.
  • Personal Care Products Council International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI)
  • Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). (Pl Names)
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  • Rehm, S. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. 1994 (Dict Rehm)
  • Rosengarten, F. The book of edible nuts. 1984 (Edible Nuts)
  • Schippers, P. et al. 1995. A revision of the infraspecific taxonomy of Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge) with an experimentally evaluated character set Syst. Bot. 20:461-481.
  • Seed Regulatory and Testing Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S.D.A. State noxious-weed seed requirements recognized in the administration of the Federal Seed Act (updated annually). (State Noxweed Seed)
  • Simpson, D. A. & C. A. Inglis 2001. Cyperaceae of economic, ethnobotanical and horticultural importance: a checklist Kew Bull. 56:292-293.
  • Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyermark Flora of Guatemala. (F Guat)
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Check other web resources for Cyperus esculentus L. :