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Taxon: Echinochloa frumentacea Link

Genus: Echinochloa
Family: Poaceae (alt.Gramineae)
Subfamily: Panicoideae
Tribe: Paniceae
Subtribe: Boivinellinae
Nomen number: 14828
Place of publication: Hort. berol. 1:204. 1827
Link to protologue: https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/46937375
Comment: [or E. colona Frumentacea Group]
Name Verified on: 07-May-1991 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 168 (159 active, 158 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

  • billion-dollar grass  (Source: Dict Rehm) - English
  • Indian barnyard millet  (Source: Taxon) - English
  • Siberian millet  (Source: F NAmer) - English
  • white millet  (Source: BSBI) - English
  • white panicum  (Source: Aust Pl Common Names) - English
  • white-panic  (Source: F NAmer) - English
  • Sawahirse  (Source: Dict Rehm) - German
  • sama  (Source: Names Watson) - India

Economic Importance:

  • Animal food: fodder; forage
  • Human food: cereal

Distributional Range:



    • CHINA: China [Anhui Sheng, Heilongjiang Sheng, Henan Sheng, Guizhou Sheng, Yunnan Sheng, Nei Mongol Zizhiqu, Ningxia Huizi Zizhiqu]
    • EASTERN ASIA: Taiwan


    • AUSTRALIA: Australia


    Northern America
    • United States

    Other (probable origin from cult. in India and Africa)


  1. Bor, N. L. 1960. The grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan.
  2. Botanical Society of the British Isles. BSBI taxon database (on-line resource).
  3. de Wet, J. M. J. et al. 1983. Domestication of Sawa millet (Echinochloa colona). Econ. Bot. 37:283-291.
  4. Englert, J. M. et al. 1999. USDA-NRCS Improved conservation plant materials released by NRCS and cooperators
  5. FNA Editorial Committee. 1993-. Flora of North America.
  6. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Echinochloa+frumentacea&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  7. Hitchcock, A. S. 1950. Manual of the grasses of the United States, ed. 2. Note: = Echinochloa crusgalli var. frumentacea
  8. Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS). Australian plant common name database (on-line resource).
  9. Kartesz, J. T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland.
  10. Lazarides, M. & B. Hince. 1993. CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia
  11. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  12. Randall, R. P. 2007. The introduced flora of Australia and its weed status.
  13. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants
  14. Scholz, H. 1992. Echinochloa esculenta, comb. nov. - the correct name of the Japanese barnyard millet (Gramineae). Taxon 41:522-523. Note: Echincohloa frumentacea was previously used as a collective name for cultigens derived from wild E. colona
  15. Sood, S. et al. 2015. Review: Barnyard millet - a potential food and feed crop of future. Pl. Breed. (New York) 134:135-147.
  16. Turrill, W. B. et al., eds. 1952-. Flora of tropical East Africa.
  17. Watson, J. F. 1868. Index to the native and scientific names of Indian and other eastern economic plants and products Note: = Panicum frumentaceum
  18. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994-. Flora of China (English edition).
  19. Yamaguchi, H. et al. 2005. A molecular phylogeny of wild and cultivated Echinochloa in East Asia inferred from non-coding region sequences of trnT-L-F. Weed Biol. Managem. 5:210-218. Note: The weed society of Japan
  20. Zuloaga, F. O. et al. 2003. Catalogue of New World grasses (Poaceae): III. Subfamilies Panicoideae, Aristidoideae, Arundinoideae, and Danthonioideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 46:218. Note: = Echinochloa crusgalli var. frumantacea

Check other web resources for Echinochloa frumentacea Link :

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=14828. Accessed 16 September 2019.