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Taxon: Gossypium herbaceum L.

Genus: Gossypium
Subgenus: Gossypium
Section: Gossypium
Subsection: Gossypium
Family: Malvaceae
Subfamily: Malvoideae
Tribe: Gossypieae
Nomen number: 17915
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:693. 1753
Link to protologue: https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/358714
Typification: View in Linnean Typification Project
Name Verified on: 10-Aug-1999 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 324 (208 active, 144 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Autonyms (not in current use), synonyms and invalid designations:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym, I invalid designation)

Common names:

  • Arabian cotton  (Source: Dict Econ Pl) - English
  • Levant cotton  (Source: Fasc F India) - English
  • Maltese cotton  (Source: Dict Econ Pl) - English
  • short-staple cotton  (Source: AH USDA) - English
  • Syrian cotton  (Source: Dict Econ Pl) - English
  • cotonnier d'Asie  (Source: Dict Rehm) - French
  • cotonnier herbacé  (Source: Dict Rehm) - French
  • gewöhnliche Baumwolle  (Source: Zander Ency) - German
  • krautiger Baumwollstrauch  (Source: Dict Rehm) - German
  • shiro-bana-wata  (Source: F Okin) - Japanese Rōmaji
  • algodoeiro-asiático  (Source: Dict Rehm) - Portuguese
  • algodonero  (Source: Dict Rehm) - Spanish
  • algodonero herbáceo  (Source: Dict Rehm) - Spanish
  • indisk bomull  (Source: Kulturvaxtdatabas) - Swedish
  • cao mian  (Source: F ChinaEng) - Transcribed Chinese

Economic Importance:

  • Animal food: fodder (fide Pl Book) fodder (seed cakes)
  • Human food:
  • Materials:
  • Medicines: folklore
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals

Distributional Range:


    • SOUTH TROPICAL AFRICA: Mozambique, Zimbabwe
    • SOUTHERN AFRICA: Botswana, Eswatini, Namibia, South Africa [KwaZulu-Natal, Transvaal]


    • Africa

    • WESTERN ASIA: Afghanistan
    • MIDDLE ASIA: Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
    • CHINA: China (w.)



  1. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  2. Ali, S. I. & S. M. H. Jafri, eds. 1976-. Flora of Libya.
  3. Arnold, T. H. & B. C. De Wet, eds. 1993. Plants of southern Africa: names and distribution. Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa no. 62
  4. Beasley, J. O. 1940. The production of polyploids in Gossypium. J. Heredity 31:39-48. Note: it reported synthetic hexaploids from crosses between Gossypium hirsutum × G. herbaceum and G. barbadense × G. herbaceum resulted in viable hybrids but of different pollen fertility
  5. Brink, M. & R. P. Escobin, eds. 2003. Fibre plants. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 17:139-150.
  6. Campbell, B. T. et al. 2010. Status of the global cotton germplasm resources. Crop Sci. (Madison) 50:1161-1179. Note: it recognized Gossypium herbaceum as an A-genome species, and part of the secondary gene pool of cotton
  7. Cotton Crop Germplasm Committee. 2005. Cotton germplasm status report and crop vulnerability status 18.
  8. Cotton Division AMS. 1980. The classification of cotton. U.S.D.A. Agric. Handb. 556:1.
  9. Cufodontis, G. 1953-1972. Enumeratio plantarum aethiopiae: Spermatophyta.
  10. Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs
  11. Erhardt, W. et al. 2008. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen
  12. Exell, A. W. et al., eds. 1960-. Flora zambesiaca.
  13. Facciola, S. 1990. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants Kampong Publications.
  14. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Gossypium+herbaceum&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  15. Fryxell, P. A. 1976. A nomenclator of Gossypium. The botanical names of cotton. Techn. Bull. U.S.D.A. 1491:38.
  16. Fryxell, P. A. 1979. The natural history of the cotton tribe 64.
  17. Fryxell, P. A. 1992. A revised taxonomic interpretation of Gossypium L. (Malvaceae). Rheedea 2:147.
  18. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  19. Liu, Q. et al. 2015. A new synthetic allotetraploid (A1A1G2G2) between Gossypium herbaceum and G. australe: Bridging for simultanously transferring favorable genes from these two diploid species into Upland cotton. PLoS One 10(4): e0123209.
  20. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2
  21. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2 American Herbal Products Association, Silver Spring, Maryland.
  22. Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. 1970-. Flora of [West] Pakistan.
  23. Paul, T. K. & M. P. Nayar. 1988. Malvaceae. Fascicles of flora of India. 19:115.
  24. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  25. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  26. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants
  27. Renny-Byfield, S. et al. 2016. Independent domestication of two Old World cotton species. Genome Biol Evol 8:1940-1947.
  28. Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest. 1966-. Flora of Iraq.
  29. Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964-1980. Flora europaea.
  30. Ullah, R. et al. 2018. Analysis of the resistance of Gossypium herbaceum to cotton leaf curl kokhran virus strain burewala and cotton leaf curl multan betasatellite. J. Pl. Pathol. 100:313-316.
  31. Uphof, J. C. T. 1968. Dictionary of economic plants, ed. 2.
  32. Walker, E. 1976. Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu Islands.
  33. Wendel, J. F. & V. A. Albert. 1992. Phylogenetics of the cotton genus (Gossypium): character state weighted parsimony analysis of chloroplast-DNA restriction site data and its systematic and biogeographic implications. Syst. Bot. 17:115-143. URL: www.aspt.net/systematic-botany
  34. Wendel, J. F. et al. 2009. Evolution and natural history of the cotton genus. Genetics and genomics of cotton 3-22.
  35. Westengen, O. T. et al. 2005. Genetic diversity and geographic pattern in early South American cotton domestication. Theor. Appl. Genet. 110:392-402. Note: it was included "to compare the diploid and the derived polyploid cottons"
  36. Wiggins, I. L. 1980. Flora of Baja California.
  37. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994-. Flora of China (English edition).
  38. Wu, Y. et al. 2017. A new synthetic hybrid (A1D5) between Gossypium herbaceum and G. raimondii and its morphological, cytogenetic, molecular characterization. PLoS One 12(2): e0169833.

Check other web resources for Gossypium herbaceum L. :

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • SIBIS: South African National Biodiversity Institute's (SANBI) Integrated Biodiversity System
  • On-line Flora of Zimbabwe:
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.


  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=17915. Accessed 13 August 2020.