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Taxon: Heteropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult.

 
Genus: Heteropogon
Family: Poaceae (alt.Gramineae)
Subfamily: Panicoideae
Tribe: Andropogoneae
Subtribe: Anthristiriinae
Nomen number: 18953
Place of publication: Syst. veg. 2:836. 1817
Link to protologue:
Name Verified on: 20-May-1992 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 37 (18 active, 16 available) in National Plant Germplasm System

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

  • black spear grass  (Source: pers. comm.) - English
  • bunch spear grass  (Source: pers. comm.) - English
  • bunched spear grass  (Source: Aust Pl Common Names) - English
  • spear grass  (Source: Pl Res SEAs) - English
  • tangle grass  (Source: Dict Rehm) - English
  • tanglehead  (Source: Dict Rehm) - English
  • assegaaigras  (Source: Ecocrop) - Afrikaans
  • steekgras  (Source: Ecocrop) - Afrikaans
  • herbe à moutons  (Source: PROTA4U) - French
  • herbe barbue  (Source: PROTA4U) - French
  • herbe polisson  (Source: PROTA4U) - French
  • Speergras  (Source: Dict Rehm) - German
  • flechinha  (Source: PROTA4U) - Portuguese
  • hierba torcida  (Source: Dict Rehm) - Spanish
  • huang mao  (Source: F ChinaEng) - Transcribed Chinese

Economic Importance:

  • Animal food: fodder; forage
  • Environmental:
  • Weed:

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Africa
    • MACARONESIA: Cape Verde
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia
    • NORTHEAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan
    • EAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda
    • WEST-CENTRAL TROPICAL AFRICA: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Rwanda
    • WEST TROPICAL AFRICA: Benin, Cote D'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo
    • SOUTH TROPICAL AFRICA: Angola, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe
    • SOUTHERN AFRICA: South Africa

    Asia-Temperate
    • WESTERN ASIA: Lebanon, Syria
    • CHINA: China [Zhejiang Sheng, Fujian Sheng, Henan Sheng, Hunan Sheng, Hubei Sheng, Gansu Sheng, Jiangxi Sheng, Guangdong Sheng, Guizhou Sheng, Shaanxi Sheng, Sichuan Sheng, Yunnan Sheng, Guangxi Zhuangzu Zizhiqu, Xizang Zizhiqu, Hainan Sheng]
    • EASTERN ASIA: Taiwan

    Asia-Tropical
    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: India, Sri Lanka
    • INDO-CHINA: Myanmar

    Australasia
    • AUSTRALIA: Australia [New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia, Northern Territory]

    Europe
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Albania, Croatia, Italy, Montenegro
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France, Spain


    Cultivated (also cult.)

    Naturalized

    Northern America
    • SOUTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Florida]
    • SOUTH-CENTRAL U.S.A.: United States [New Mexico, Texas]
    • SOUTHWESTERN U.S.A.: United States [Arizona, California (s.)]
    • NORTHERN MEXICO: Mexico [Baja, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Durango, Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Sonora, Tamaulipas]
    • SOUTHERN MEXICO: Mexico [Aguascalientes, Chiapas, Colima, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, México, Michoacán de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, Tabasco, Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave, Yucatán, Ciudad de México]

    Pacific
    • NORTH-CENTRAL PACIFIC: United States [Hawaii]

    Southern America
    • CARIBBEAN: West Indies
    • CENTRAL AMERICA: Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua
    • WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA: Bolivia
    • SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: Argentina


References:

  1. Alderson, J. & W. C. Sharp. 1995. Grass varieties in the United States, U.S.D.A. Agric. Handb. 170, rev. ed. CRC Press. Note: Revised version of AH 170
  2. Beetle, A. A. 1977. Noteworthy grasses from Mexico V. Phytologia 37:356.
  3. Bor, N. L. 1960. The grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan.
  4. Dassanayake, M. D. & F. R. Fosberg, eds. 1980-. A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon.
  5. Davidse, G. et al., eds. 1994. Flora mesoamericana.
  6. Englert, J. M. et al. 1999-. USDA-NRCS Improved conservation plant materials released by NRCS and cooperators
  7. Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource).
  8. FNA Editorial Committee. 1993-. Flora of North America.
  9. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Heteropogon+contortus&quantity=1 target='_blank'
  10. Hnatiuk, R. J. 1990. Census of Australian vascular plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series No. 11.
  11. Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS). Australian plant common name database (on-line resource).
  12. Lazarides, M. 1980. The tropical grasses of Southeast Asia
  13. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2
  14. McVaugh, R. 1983-. Flora Novo-Galiciana.
  15. Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. 1970-. Flora of [West] Pakistan.
  16. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants
  17. Shukla, U. 1996. Grasses of north-eastern India
  18. 't Mannetje, L. & R. M. Jones, eds. 1992. Forages. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 4:137.
  19. Turrill, W. B. et al., eds. 1952-. Flora of tropical East Africa.
  20. USDA/ARS. INVADERS database system. The University of Montana (on-line resource).
  21. Veldkamp, J. F. 1997. pers. comm. Note: re. common names
  22. Vibrans, H., ed. Malezas de México (on-line resource). URL: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/poaceae/heteropogon-contortus/fichas/pagina1.htm target='_blank'
  23. Wagner, W. L. et al. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands (on-line resource).
  24. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994-. Flora of China (English edition).
  25. Zon, A. P. M. van der. 1992. Graminées du Cameroun
  26. Zuloaga, F. O. & O. Morrone, eds. 1996, 1999. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de la República Argentina. I. Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Angiospermae (Monocotyledonae), II. Dicotyledonae. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60, 74.
  27. PROTABASE, the information base of PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) (on-line resource).

Check other web resources for Heteropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult. :

Images:


Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=18953. Accessed 15 September 2019.