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Taxon: Panax quinquefolius L.

 
Genus: Panax
Subgenus: Panax
Section: Panax
Family: Araliaceae
Subfamily: Aralioideae
Nomen number: 26381
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:1058. 1753 "quinquefolium"
Link to protologue:
Typification: View in Linnean Typification Project
Name Verified on: 27-Jul-2005 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 2 (1 active, 0 available) in National Plant Germplasm System

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • CITES Appendix II:
  • Food additives:
  • Materials: lipids (used in various cosmetics)
  • Medicines: folklore; folklore

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Northern America
    • EASTERN CANADA: Canada [Québec (s.w.), Ontario]
    • NORTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, West Virginia]
    • NORTH-CENTRAL U.S.A.: United States [Iowa, Minnesota (s.), Missouri, Nebraska (e.), South Dakota (e.), Illinois, Oklahoma (e.), Wisconsin]
    • SOUTHEASTERN U.S.A.: United States [Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia]


    Cultivated

    Asia-Temperate
    • CHINA: China


References:

  1. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  2. Brown, R. G. & M. L. Brown. 1984. Herbaceous plants of Maryland
  3. Browne, E. T. & R. Athey. 1992. Vascular plants of Kentucky: an annotated checklist
  4. Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959-. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae.
  5. CITES. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendices I, II and III (on-line resource).
  6. Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana.
  7. Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs
  8. Duke, J. A. 1985. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs
  9. Erhardt, W. et al. 2008. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen
  10. Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, ed. 2
  11. Govaerts, R. & D. G. Frodin. 2004. World checklist and bibliography of Araliaceae
  12. Hu, S. Y. 1976. The genus Panax (ginseng) in Chinese medicine. Econ. Bot. 30:14.
  13. Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening
  14. Kartesz, J. T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland.
  15. Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster. 1996. Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2
  16. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third.
  17. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2
  18. McGregor, R. L. et al. (The Great Plains Flora Association). 1986. Flora of the Great Plains.
  19. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2 American Herbal Products Association, Silver Spring, Maryland.
  20. Mitchell, R. S., ed. 1986. A checklist of New York state plants. New York State Mus. Bull. 458
  21. Mohlenbrock, R. H. & D. M. Ladd. 1978. Distribution of Illinois vascular plants
  22. Ohio Flora Committee (E. L. Braun, T. S. Cooperrider, T. R. Fisher, J. J. Furlow). 1967-. The vascular flora of Ohio.
  23. Ownbey, G. B. & T. Morley. 1991. Vascular plants of Minnesota: a checklist and atlas
  24. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
  25. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  26. Radford, A. E. et al. 1964. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas.
  27. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants
  28. Scoggan, H. J. 1978-1979. The flora of Canada, 4 vol.
  29. Seymour, F. 1969. The flora of New England.
  30. Small, E. 1997. Culinary herbs. Note: NRC Research Press, Ottawa
  31. Smith, A. C. 1944. Araliaceae. North American flora 28B:9. Note: ser. 1, 1905-1957; ser. 2, 1954-1972
  32. Smith, E. B. 1978. An atlas and annotated list of the vascular plants of Arkansas
  33. Steyermark, J. A. 1977. Flora of Missouri.
  34. Voss, E. 1972-. Michigan flora.
  35. Wen, J. 2001. Species diversity, nomenclature, phylogeny, biogeography, and classification of the ginseng genus (Panax L., Araliaceae). Utilization of biotechnological, genetic and cultural approaches for North American and Asian ginseng improvement. Proceedings of the International Ginseng Workshop 69.
  36. Wherry, E. T. et al. 1979. Atlas of the flora of Pennsylvania.
  37. Wofford, B. E. Database of Tennessee vascular plants (on-line resource). URL: https://herbarium.utk.edu/vascular/vascular-database.php?CategoryID=Dicots&FamilyID=Araliaceae&GenusID=Panax&SpeciesID=quinquefolius target='_blank'
  38. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994-. Flora of China (English edition).
  39. 1961. Webster's third new international dictionary.

Check other web resources for Panax quinquefolius L. :

  • PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories
  • BONAP North American Plant Atlas of the Biota of North America Program:
  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Images:

  • Fruits: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seeds: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=26381. Accessed 5 December 2019.