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Taxon: Echinochloa esculenta (A. Braun) H. Scholz

Genus: Echinochloa
Family: Poaceae (alt.Gramineae)
Subfamily: Panicoideae
Tribe: Paniceae
Subtribe: Boivinellinae
Nomen number: 317845
Place of publication: Taxon 41:523. 1992
Link to protologue:
Comment: [or E. crus-galli Esculenta Group]
Name Verified on: 01-Dec-1992 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 4 (4 active, 2 available) in National Plant Germplasm System

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

  • Japanese barnyard millet  (Source: Taxon) - English
  • Japanese millet  (Source: World Econ Pl) - English
  • white millet  (Source: BSBI) - English
  • millet Japonais  (Source: Dict Rehm) - French
  • japanische Hirse  (Source: Dict Rehm) - German
  • japanische Hühnerhirse  (Source: Zander ed17) - German
  • giavone miglio giapponese  (Source: Mult Glossary Crops) - Italian
  • hie  (Source: Grass Japan) - Japanese Rōmaji
  • capim-arroz  (Source: pers. comm.) - Portuguese (Brazil)
  • mijo japonés  (Source: Dict Rehm) - Spanish
  • japansk hönshirs  (Source: Kulturvaxtdatabas) - Swedish
  • zi sui bai  (Source: F ChinaEng) - Transcribed Chinese

Economic Importance:

  • Animal food: fodder (cultivated in Asia and "considered superior to rice and oat straw") forage (for hay or grown for grazing in Australia, China and the U.S.A.)
  • Environmental:
  • Human food:
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (photosensitivity, as Echinochloa utilis)

Distributional Range:


    • Africa

    • CHINA: China
    • EASTERN ASIA: Japan

    Northern America
    • North America

    Southern America
    • South America


  1. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  2. Botanical Society of the British Isles. BSBI taxon database (on-line resource).
  3. Erhardt, W. et al. 2002. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 17. Auflage Note: = Echinochloa utilis
  4. FNA Editorial Committee. 1993-. Flora of North America.
  5. Groth, D. 2005. pers. comm. Note: re. Brazilian common names
  6. International Seed Testing Association. 1982. A Multilingual Glossary of Common Plant-Names 1. Field crops, grasses and vegetables, ed. 2.
  7. Ishikawa, G. et al. 2013. Molecular characterization of spontaneous and induced mutations in the three homoelogous waxy genes of Japanese barnyard millet [Echinochloa esculenta (A. Braun) H. Scholz]. Molec. Breed. 31:69-78. Note: waxy genes "are responsible for amylose production", this study examined these genes in three cultivars since there are preferences for selecting low amylose strains
  8. Koyama, T. 1987. Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions Note: = Echinochloa crus-galli subsp. utilis
  9. Lazarides, M. & B. Hince. 1993. CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia Note: = Echinochloa utilis Ohwi & Yabuno
  10. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2
  11. Morrone, O. et al. 2012. Phylogeny of the Paniceae (Poaceae: Panicoideae): integrating plastid DNA sequences and morphology into a new classification. Cladistics 28:333-356. Note: together with Echinochloa colona clustered in a basal position sister to other members of subtribe Boivinellinae, a position previously uncertain when using a nuclear gene-marker, here "attributed to hybridization or reticulation events"
  12. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource).
  13. Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants
  14. Scholz, H. 1992. Echinochloa esculenta, comb. nov. - the correct name of the Japanese barnyard millet (Gramineae). Taxon 41:522-523.
  15. Sood, S. et al. 2015. Barnyard millet - a potential food and feed crop of future. Pl. Breed. (New York) 134:135-147.
  16. University of California Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program. UC SAREP on-line cover crop database (on-line resource).
  17. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994-. Flora of China (English edition).
  18. Yabuno, T. 1962. Cytotaxonomic studies on the two cultivated species and the wild relatives in the genus Echinochloa. Cytologia 27:296-305. Note: based on a previous study reporting x=9 for Echinochloa the cytology of wild and cultivated E. crus-galli were recognized as hexaploids
  19. Yabuno, T. 1987. Japanese barnyard millet (Echinochloa utilis, Poaceae) in Japan. Econ. Bot. 41:484-493. Note: = Echinochloa utilis; recognized "Japanese barnyard millet" as derived from E. crus-galli
  20. Zuloaga, F. O. et al. 2003. Catalogue of New World grasses (Poaceae): III. Subfamilies Panicoideae, Aristidoideae, Arundinoideae, and Danthonioideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 46:220.

Check other web resources for Echinochloa esculenta (A. Braun) H. Scholz :

  • PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories
  • BONAP North American Plant Atlas of the Biota of North America Program:
  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • TROPICOS: Nomenclatural and Specimen Database of the Missouri Botanical Garden
  • CNWG: Catalogue of New World Grasses Searchable Database
  • World Grass Species-Descriptions: Morphological species description from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=317845. Accessed 20 November 2019.