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Taxon: Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Savigny

Genus: Bruguiera
Family: Rhizophoraceae
Nomen number: 403585
Place of publication: J. B. A. P. M. de Lamarck, Encycl. 4:696. 1798
Link to protologue:
  • • recommendation of W. T. Stearn, Botanical Latin ed. 4: 261. 1992 followed in retaining original spelling: "The initial ρ of a Greek word transliterated as rh, e.g. rhiza (ριζα, root, rhizome), should have an additional r added to it when preceded by a vowel, e.g. Glycyrrhiza (γλυκυρριζα, liquorice, from γλυκος, sweet, ριζα, root), leptorrhiza (λεπτορριζα, with a thin root, from λεπτος, small, slender), but as many reputable authors, Linnaeus among them, have omitted this additional r, it is best regarded as optional and an author's original spelling, as in Lemna polyrhiza, should be accepted."
  • • authorship verified from original literature (see p. 697)
Name Verified on: 07-Dec-1995 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 0 (0 active, 0 available) in National Plant Germplasm System

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: erosion control
  • Food additives:
  • Materials: fiber (for rayon manufacture)

Distributional Range:


    • EAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Kenya, Tanzania
    • SOUTHERN AFRICA: South Africa [KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape]
    • WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN: Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles

    • EASTERN ASIA: Japan, [Ryukyu Islands] Taiwan

    • INDO-CHINA: Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam
    • MALESIA: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines

    • AUSTRALIA: Australia [New South Wales, Queensland, Northern Territory]

    • NORTHWESTERN PACIFIC: Marshall Islands, Micronesia
    • SOUTHWESTERN PACIFIC: Fiji, Samoa, Tonga


  1. Arnold, T. H. & B. C. De Wet, eds. 1993. Plants of southern Africa: names and distribution. Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa no. 62 Note: lists as "Bruguiera gymnorrhiza" (L.) Lam.
  2. Aubréville, A. et al., eds. 1960-. Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viet-Nam. Note: lists as "Bruguiera gymnorrhiza" (L.) Lam.
  3. Dassanayake, M. D. & F. R. Fosberg, eds. 1980-. A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon. Note: lists as Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Savigny
  4. Duke, J. A. 1989. Handbook of Nuts CRC Press.
  5. Elevitch, C. R., ed. The traditional tree initiative: species profiles for Pacific Island agroforestry (on-line resource). URL: http://www.agroforestry.net/tti/B.gymno-largeleafmangrove.pdf target='_blank' Note: Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR), Holualoa, Hawai'i\; http://www.traditionaltree.org/
  6. Farr, E. R. et al., eds. 1979, 1986. Index nomina genericorum Note: lists as Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Savigny
  7. George, A. S., ed. 1980-. Flora of Australia. Note: lists as Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Savigny
  8. Germishuizen, G. & N. L. Meyer, eds. 2003. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14
  9. Greuter, W. et al. 1993. NCU-3: Names in current use for extant plant genera. Regnum Veg. 129:156. Note: lists as Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Savigny
  10. Hnatiuk, R. J. 1990. Census of Australian vascular plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series No. 11. Note: lists as Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Savigny
  11. Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS). Australian plant common name database (on-line resource).
  12. Nicolson, D. H. et al. 1988. An interpretation of Van Rheede's Hortus Malabaricus. Regnum Veg. 119:215.
  13. Smith, A. C. 1979-1991. Flora vitiensis nova. Note: lists as "Bruguiera gymnorrhiza" (L.) Lam.
  14. Smitinand, T. & K. Larsen, eds. 1970-. Flora of Thailand. Note: lists as "Bruguiera gymnorrhiza" (L.) Savigny
  15. Stanley, T. D. & E. M. Ross. 1983-1989. Flora of south-eastern Queensland. Note: lists as Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam.
  16. Steenis, C. G. G. J. van, ed. 1948-. Flora malesiana. Note: lists as "Bruguiera. gymnorrhiza" (L.) Lam., but corrects authorship to "(L.) Savigny" in 6:966. 1972
  17. Thulin, M., ed. 1993-. Flora of Somalia. Note: lists as "Bruguiera gymnorrhiza" (L.) Lam.
  18. Turrill, W. B. et al., eds. 1952-. Flora of tropical East Africa. Note: lists as "Bruguiera gymnorrhiza" (L.) Lam.
  19. Wagner, W. L. et al. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i Note: lists as "Bruguiera gymnorrhiza" (L.) Lam.
  20. Whitmore, T. C. et al., eds. 1989. Tree flora of Indonesia, Check list for Kalimantan. Note: lists as Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Savigny
  21. PROTABASE, the information base of PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) (on-line resource).

Check other web resources for Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Savigny :

  • AVH: Australia's Virtual Herbarium
  • ABRS: Australian Biological Resources Study Flora of Australia online
  • SIBIS: South African National Biodiversity Institute's (SANBI) Integrated Biodiversity System
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.


  • Fruit: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Fruit: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=403585. Accessed 21 January 2020.