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Taxon: Viola odorata L.

 
Genus: Viola
Family: Violaceae
Subfamily: Violoideae
Tribe: Violeae
Nomen number: 41733
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:934. 1753
Link to protologue:
Typification: View in Linnean Typification Project
Name Verified on: 13-Feb-2003 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 25-Feb-2004
Species priority site is:
Accessions: 53 (0 active, 0 available) in National Plant Germplasm System

Synonyms:

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental (fide Dict Gard; Hortus 3)
  • Food additives:
  • Materials:
  • Medicines: folklore (fide CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Africa
    • MACARONESIA: Portugal, [Madeira Islands] Spain [Canary Islands]
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia

    Asia-Temperate
    • WESTERN ASIA: Cyprus, Iran, Iraq (n.), Lebanon, Turkey

    Asia-Tropical
    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: India [Jammu and Kashmir]

    Europe
    • NORTHERN EUROPE: Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Belarus, Moldova, Russian Federation-European part, [European part] Ukraine (incl. Krym)
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Albania, Bulgaria, Former Yugoslavia, Greece (incl. Crete), Italy (incl. Sardinia, Sicily), Romania
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France (incl. Corsica), Portugal, Spain (incl. Baleares)


    Cultivated (also cult.)

    Naturalized (also natzd.)

References:

  1. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource on www.skud.info). 2012 (Kulturvaxtdatabas)
  2. Ali, S. I. & S. M. H. Jafri, eds. Flora of Libya. (F Libya)
  3. Backer, C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen van den Brink, Jr. Flora of Java. (F Java)
  4. Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45. 1993 (L Peru)
  5. Castroviejo, S. et al., eds. Flora iberica: plantas vasculares de la Peninsula Iberica e Islas Baleares. (F Iberica)
  6. Chinese Academy of Sciences Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae. (F China)
  7. Correa, M. N. Flora patagonica. (F Patag)
  8. Craker, L. E. & J. E. Simon, eds. Herbs, spices, and medicinal plants, 2 vols. (HerbSpices)
  9. Czerepanov, S. K. Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (the former USSR). 1995 (L USSR)
  10. Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. (F Turk)
  11. Demilly, D. et al. Liste alphabétique des principales espèces de plantes cultivées et de mauvaises herbes. Noms latins et noms français, ed. 7. 2001 (L Noms French ed7)
  12. Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002 (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  13. Encke, F. et al. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage. 1984 (Zander ed13)
  14. Facciola, S. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants. 1990 (Cornucopia)
  15. Fennane, M. et al., eds. Flore pratique du Maroc. (F Prat Maroc)
  16. Fernández Casado, A. 1984. Estudios sobre el género Viola L. en la península Ibérica I. Cariología (Fontqueria) 5:24.
  17. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). (Ecocrop)
  18. George, A. S., ed. Flora of Australia. (F Aust)
  19. Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, ed. 2. 1991 (Glea Cron ed2)
  20. Hanelt, P., ed. Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Volumes 1-6. 2001 (Mansf Ency)
  21. Hansen, A. & P. Sunding Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, ed. 4. Sommerfeltia vol. 17. (L Macar ed4)
  22. Hickman, J. C., ed. The Jepson manual: higher plants of California. 1993 (F CalifJep)
  23. Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 1992 (Dict Gard) 4:671.
  24. Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS) Australian plant common name database (on-line resource). (Aust Pl Common Names)
  25. Iwatsuki, K. et al. Flora of Japan. (F Japan)
  26. Izquierdo Z., I. et al., eds. Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias: hongos, plantas y animales terrestres. 2004 (L Canarias)
  27. Jahandiez, E. & R. Maire Catalogue des plantes du Maroc. (L Maroc)
  28. Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez, eds. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75. 1999 (L Ecuador)
  29. Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. Flora SSSR. (F USSR)
  30. Laasimer, L. et al., eds. Flora of the Baltic countries; compendium of vascular plants. (F Baltic)
  31. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Hortus third. (Hortus 3)
  32. Magee, D. W. & H. E. Ahles Flora of the Northeast. A manual of the vascular flora of New England and adjacent New York. (F NE US)
  33. Marcussen, T. 2006. Allozymic variation in the widespread and cultivated Viola odorata (Violaceae) in western Eurasia Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 151:563-571.
  34. Marcussen, T. et al. 2001. Viola hirta (Violaceae) and its relatives in Norway Nordic J. Bot. 21:6.
  35. Markle, G. M. et al., eds. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. 1998 (Food Feed Crops US)
  36. Marticorena, C. & M. Quezada Catálogo de la flora vascular de Chile. (L Chile)
  37. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  38. Meikle, R. D. Flora of Cyprus. (F Cyprus)
  39. Mouterde, P. Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie. (F Liban)
  40. Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali, eds. Flora of [West] Pakistan. (F Pak)
  41. Ohio Flora Committee (E. L. Braun, T. S. Cooperrider, T. R. Fisher, J. J. Furlow) The vascular flora of Ohio. (F Ohio)
  42. Orell, J. & A. M. Romo 1991. The genus Viola in the Balaeric Islands Butl. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat. 59:83.
  43. Pajaujis Anonis, D. Flower oils and floral compounds in perfumery. (Flower Oils)
  44. Personal Care Products Council International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI)
  45. Pignatti, S. Flora d'Italia. (F Ital)
  46. Pittier, H. F. et al. Catálogo de la flora venezolana. (L Venez)
  47. Pottier-Alapetite, G. Flore de la Tunisie: Angiospermes-Dicotyledones. (F Tunis)
  48. Press, J. R. & M. J. Short, eds. Flora of Madeira. (F Madeira)
  49. Quézel, P. & S. Santa Nouvelle flore de l'Algerie. (F Alger)
  50. Rechinger, K. H., ed. Flora iranica. (F Iran)
  51. Russell, N. H. 1965. Violets (Viola) of central and eastern United States: An introductory survey (Sida) 2:108.
  52. Scoggan, H. J. The flora of Canada, 4 vol. (F Canada)
  53. Sharma, B. D. et al., eds. Flora of India. (F India)
  54. Silva, L. et al. Listagem da fauna e flora terrestres dos Açores. Lista des plantas vasculares (Pteridophyta e Spermatophyta). (L Azores)
  55. Smith, A. C. Flora vitiensis nova. (F Viti)
  56. Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyermark Flora of Guatemala. (F Guat)
  57. Steenis, C. G. G. J. van, ed. Flora malesiana. (F Males)
  58. Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest Flora of Iraq. (F Iraq)
  59. Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. (F Eur)
  60. Valdés, B. et al., eds. Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du nord du Maroc, incluant des clés d'identification. 2002 (L NMaroc)
  61. Voss, E. Michigan flora. (F Mich)
  62. Welsh, S. L. et al. A Utah flora. (F Utah ed2)
  63. Woodson, R. E. & R. W. Schery, eds. Flora of Panama. (F Panama)
  64. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). (F ChinaEng)
  65. Zohary, M. & N. Feinbrun-Dothan Flora palaestina. (F Palest)
  66. Zuloaga, F. O. & O. Morrone, eds. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de la República Argentina. I. Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Angiospermae (Monocotyledonae), II. Dicotyledonae. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60, 74. (L Argent)

Check other web resources for Viola odorata L. :

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • ABRS: Australian Biological Resources Study Flora of Australia online
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ICRA: International Cultivar Registration Authority (on-line resource). for Viola odorata cultivars
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Images:

  • Flower: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=41733. Accessed 15 November 2018.