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Taxon: Viola odorata L.

 
Genus: Viola
Family: Violaceae
Subfamily: Violoideae
Tribe: Violeae
Nomen number: 41733
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 2:934. 1753
Link to protologue:
Typification: View in Linnean Typification Project
Name Verified on: 13-Feb-2003 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 53 (0 active, 0 available) in National Plant Germplasm System

Autonyms (not in current use) and synonyms:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym)

Common names:

  • common violet  (Source: Aust Pl Common Names) - English
  • English violet  (Source: Hortus 3) - English
  • florist's violet  (Source: Hortus 3) - English
  • garden violet  (Source: Dict Gard) - English
  • sweet violet  (Source: World Econ Pl) - English
  • sweet violet   - English (Canada)
  • violette odorante  (Source: L Noms French ed7) - French
  • violette odorante   - French (Canada)
  • banafsha  (Source: F India) - India
  • nioi-sumire  (Source: F Japan) - Japanese Rōmaji
  • luktviol  (Source: Kulturvaxtdatabas) - Swedish
  • xiang jin cai  (Source: F ChinaEng) - Transcribed Chinese
  • fialka  (Source: Mansf Ency) - Transliterated Russian

Economic Importance:

  • Environmental: ornamental; ornamental
  • Food additives:
  • Materials:
  • Medicines: folklore (fide CRC MedHerbs ed2; Herbs Commerce ed2)

Distributional Range:

    Native

    Africa
    • MACARONESIA: Portugal, [Madeira Islands] Spain [Canary Islands]
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia

    Asia-Temperate
    • WESTERN ASIA: Cyprus, Iran, Iraq (n.), Lebanon, Turkey

    Asia-Tropical
    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: India [Jammu and Kashmir]

    Europe
    • NORTHERN EUROPE: Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland
    • EASTERN EUROPE: Belarus, Moldova, Russian Federation-European part, [European part] Ukraine (incl. Krym)
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Albania, Bulgaria, Former Yugoslavia, Greece (incl. Crete), Italy (incl. Sardinia, Sicily), Romania
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France (incl. Corsica), Portugal, Spain (incl. Baleares)


    Cultivated (also cult.)

    Naturalized (also natzd.)

References:

  1. Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
  2. Ali, S. I. & S. M. H. Jafri, eds. 1976-. Flora of Libya.
  3. Backer, C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen van den Brink, Jr. 1963-1968. Flora of Java.
  4. Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi. 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45
  5. Castroviejo, S. et al., eds. 1989-. Flora iberica: plantas vasculares de la Peninsula Iberica e Islas Baleares.
  6. Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959-. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae.
  7. Correa, M. N. 1969-. Flora patagonica.
  8. Craker, L. E. & J. E. Simon, eds. 1986-1987. Herbs, spices, and medicinal plants, 2 vols.
  9. Czerepanov, S. K. 1995. Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (the former USSR) Cambridge University Press.
  10. Darbyshire, S. J. 2003. Inventory of Canadian Agricultural Weeds Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 175.
  11. Davis, P. H., ed. 1965-1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
  12. Demilly, D. et al. 2001. Liste alphabétique des principales espèces de plantes cultivées et de mauvaises herbes. Noms latins et noms français, ed. 7 Note: GEVES-SNES, Beaucouzé, France
  13. Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs
  14. Encke, F. et al. 1984. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage
  15. Facciola, S. 1990. Cornucopia, a source book of edible plants Kampong Publications.
  16. Fennane, M. et al., eds. 1999-. Flore pratique du Maroc.
  17. Fernández Casado, A. 1984. Estudios sobre el género Viola L. en la península Ibérica I. Cariología. Fontqueria 5:24.
  18. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). URL: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Viola+odorata&quantity=1 target='_blank'
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  20. Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, ed. 2
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  22. Hansen, A. & P. Sunding. 1993. Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, ed. 4. Sommerfeltia vol. 17.
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  24. Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening 4:671.
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  26. Iwatsuki, K. et al. 1993-. Flora of Japan.
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  34. Marcussen, T. et al. 2001. Viola hirta (Violaceae) and its relatives in Norway. Nordic J. Bot. 21:6.
  35. Marcussen, T. 2006. Allozymic variation in the widespread and cultivated Viola odorata (Violaceae) in western Eurasia. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 151:563-571.
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  44. Pajaujis Anonis, D. 1993. Flower oils and floral compounds in perfumery.
  45. Personal Care Products Council. INCI
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  58. Steenis, C. G. G. J. van, ed. 1948-. Flora malesiana.
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Check other web resources for Viola odorata L. :

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • ABRS: Australian Biological Resources Study Flora of Australia online
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Databas of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ICRA: International Cultivar Registration Authority (on-line resource). for Viola odorata cultivars
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
  • PubAg: USDA's National Agricultural Library database of full-text journal articles and citations on the agricultural sciences.

Images:

  • Flower: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=41733. Accessed 24 October 2019.